- G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for transferring extracellular signals into carefully choreographed intracellular responses controlling diverse aspects of cell physiology. The duration of GPCR-mediated signaling is primarily regulated via GPCR kinase (GRK)-mediated phosphorylation of activated receptors. Although many GRK structures have been reported, the mechanisms underlying GRK activation are not well-understood, in part because it is unknown how these structures map to the conformational landscape available to this enzyme family.
- The small molecule metal ion chelators bipyridine and terpyridine complexed with Zn2+ (ZnBip and ZnTerp) act as CCR5 agonists and strong positive allosteric modulators of CCL3 binding to CCR5, weak modulators of CCL4 binding, and competitors for CCL5 binding. Here we describe their binding site using computational modeling, binding, and functional studies on WT and mutated CCR5. The metal ion Zn2+ is anchored to the chemokine receptor-conserved Glu-283VII:06/7.39. Both chelators interact with aromatic residues in the transmembrane receptor domain.
- G protein-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and modulate almost every physiological process in humans. Binding of agonists to G protein-coupled receptors induces a shift from inactive to active receptor conformations. Biophysical studies of the dynamic equilibrium of receptors suggest that a portion of receptors can remain in inactive states even in the presence of saturating concentrations of agonist and G protein mimetic. However, the molecular details of agonist-bound inactive receptors are poorly understood.
- Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling through the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a key regulator of normal glucose metabolism, and exogenous GLP-1R agonist therapy is a promising avenue for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To date, the development of therapeutic GLP-1R agonists has focused on producing drugs with an extended serum half-life. This has been achieved by engineering synthetic analogs of GLP-1 or the more stable exogenous GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4). These synthetic peptide hormones share the overall structure of GLP-1 and Ex-4, with a C-terminal helical segment and a flexible N-terminal tail.
- Cell signaling pathways are noisy communication channels, and statistical measures derived from information theory can be used to quantify the information they transfer. Here we use single cell signaling measures to calculate mutual information as a measure of information transfer via gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors (GnRHR) to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). This revealed mutual information values <1 bit, implying that individual GnRH-responsive cells cannot unambiguously differentiate even two equally probable input concentrations.
- Background: Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and ACKR3 are deregulated in many diseases.Results: Potent modulators of CXCR4 and ACKR3 were engineered by phage display of the chemokine CXCL12.Conclusion: Requirements for high affinity receptor binding and activation are suggested from experimental data and molecular modeling.Significance: These chemokine variants represent useful reagents, and the phage display strategy will facilitate further optimization of CXCR4 and ACKR3 modulators.
- Biased signaling represents the ability of G protein-coupled receptors to engage distinct pathways with various efficacies depending on the ligand used or on mutations in the receptor. The angiotensin-II type 1 (AT1) receptor, a prototypical class A G protein-coupled receptor, can activate various effectors upon stimulation with the endogenous ligand angiotensin-II (AngII), including the Gq/11 protein and β-arrestins. It is believed that the activation of those two pathways can be associated with distinct conformations of the AT1 receptor.