- The role of proliferation-associated protein 2G4 (PA2G4), alternatively known as ErbB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1), in cancer has become apparent over the past 20 years. PA2G4 expression levels are correlated with prognosis in a range of human cancers, including neuroblastoma, cervical, brain, breast, prostate, pancreatic, hepatocellular, and other tumors. There are two PA2G4 isoforms, PA2G4-p42 and PA2G4-p48, and although both isoforms of PA2G4 regulate cellular growth and differentiation, these isoforms often have opposing roles depending on the context.
- Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is well-known as an endogenous proinflammatory prostanoid synthesized from arachidonic acid by the activation of cyclooxygenase-2. E type prostanoid (EP) receptors are cognates for PGE2 that have four main subtypes: EP1 to EP4. Of these, the EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors have been shown to couple to Gαs-protein and can activate adenylyl cyclase to form cAMP. Studies suggest that EP4 receptors are involved in colorectal homeostasis and cancer development, but further work is needed to identify the roles of EP2 receptors in these functions.
- Tau, a member of the MAP2/tau family of microtubule-associated proteins, stabilizes and organizes axonal microtubules in healthy neurons. In neurodegenerative tauopathies, tau dissociates from microtubules and forms neurotoxic extracellular aggregates. MAP2/tau family proteins are characterized by three to five conserved, intrinsically disordered repeat regions that mediate electrostatic interactions with the microtubule surface. Here, we used molecular dynamics, microtubule-binding experiments, and live-cell microscopy, revealing that highly-conserved histidine residues near the C terminus of each microtubule-binding repeat are pH sensors that can modulate tau–microtubule interaction strength within the physiological intracellular pH range.
- Biological (or cellular) noise is the random quantitative variability of proteins and other molecules in individual, genetically identical cells. As the result of biological noise in the levels of some transcription factors that determine a cell’s differentiation status, differentiated cells may dedifferentiate to a stem cell state given a sufficiently long time period. Here, to provide direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, we used a live-cell monitoring system based on enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expression to continuously assess the “stemness” of individual human and murine malignant mesothelioma cells over a period of up to 3 months.