DNA and Chromosomes
- Oxidative DNA damage contributes to aging and the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases including cancer. 8-hydroxyguanine (8-oxoG) is the major product of oxidative DNA lesions. Although OGG1-mediated base excision repair is the primary mechanism for 8-oxoG removal, DNA mismatch repair has also been implicated in processing oxidative DNA damage. However, the mechanism of the latter is not fully understood. Here, we treated human cells defective in various 8-oxoG repair factors with H2O2 and performed biochemical, live cell imaging, and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analyses to determine their response to the treatment.
- DNA mismatch repair (MMR) maintains genome stability primarily by correcting replication errors. MMR deficiency can lead to cancer development and bolsters cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy. However, recent studies have shown that checkpoint blockade therapy is effective in MMR-deficient cancers, thus the ability to identify cancer etiology would greatly benefit cancer treatment. MutS homolog 2 (MSH2) is an obligate subunit of mismatch recognition proteins MutSα (MSH2-MSH6) and MutSβ (MSH2-MSH3).
- Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and its posttranslational modifications regulate DNA metabolic reactions, including DNA replication and repair, at replication forks. PCNA phosphorylation at Tyr-211 (PCNA-Y211p) inhibits DNA mismatch repair and induces misincorporation during DNA synthesis. Here, we describe an unexpected role of PCNA-Y211p in cancer promotion and development. Cells expressing phosphorylation-mimicking PCNA, PCNA-Y211D, show elevated hallmarks specific to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including the up-regulation of the EMT-promoting factor Snail and the down-regulation of EMT-inhibitory factors E-cadherin and GSK3β.