DNA and Chromosomes
- Oxidative DNA damage contributes to aging and the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases including cancer. 8-hydroxyguanine (8-oxoG) is the major product of oxidative DNA lesions. Although OGG1-mediated base excision repair is the primary mechanism for 8-oxoG removal, DNA mismatch repair has also been implicated in processing oxidative DNA damage. However, the mechanism of the latter is not fully understood. Here, we treated human cells defective in various 8-oxoG repair factors with H2O2 and performed biochemical, live cell imaging, and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analyses to determine their response to the treatment.
- Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive dementia, psychiatric problems, and chorea, is known to be caused by CAG repeat expansions in the HD gene HTT. However, the mechanism of this pathology is not fully understood. The translesion DNA polymerase θ (Polθ) carries a large insertion sequence in its catalytic domain, which has been shown to allow DNA loop-outs in the primer strand. As a result of high levels of oxidative DNA damage in neural cells and Polθ's subsequent involvement in base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage, we hypothesized that Polθ contributes to CAG repeat expansion while repairing oxidative damage within HTT.
- DNA mismatch repair (MMR) maintains genome stability primarily by correcting replication errors. MMR deficiency can lead to cancer development and bolsters cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy. However, recent studies have shown that checkpoint blockade therapy is effective in MMR-deficient cancers, thus the ability to identify cancer etiology would greatly benefit cancer treatment. MutS homolog 2 (MSH2) is an obligate subunit of mismatch recognition proteins MutSα (MSH2-MSH6) and MutSβ (MSH2-MSH3).