DNA and Chromosomes
- High-fidelity DNA polymerases select the correct nucleotide over the structurally similar incorrect nucleotides with extremely high specificity while maintaining fast rates of incorporation. Previous analysis revealed the conformational dynamics and complete kinetic pathway governing correct nucleotide incorporation using a high-fidelity DNA polymerase variant containing a fluorescent unnatural amino acid. Here we extend this analysis to investigate the kinetics of nucleotide misincorporation and mismatch extension.
- Magnesium ions play a critical role in catalysis by many enzymes and contribute to the fidelity of DNA polymerases through a two-metal ion mechanism. However, specificity is a kinetic phenomenon and the roles of Mg2+ ions in each step in the catalysis have not been resolved. We first examined the roles of Mg2+ by kinetic analysis of single nucleotide incorporation catalyzed by HIV reverse transcriptase. We show that Mg.dNTP binding induces an enzyme conformational change at a rate that is independent of free Mg2+ concentration.
- We address the role of enzyme conformational dynamics in specificity for a high-fidelity DNA polymerase responsible for genome replication. We present the complete characterization of the conformational dynamics during the correct nucleotide incorporation forward and reverse reactions using stopped-flow and rapid-quench methods with a T7 DNA polymerase variant containing a fluorescent unnatural amino acid, (7-hydroxy-4-coumarin-yl) ethylglycine, which provides a signal for enzyme conformational changes.