DNA and Chromosomes
Repair and translesion synthesis of O6-alkylguanine DNA lesions in human cellsO6-alkyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6-alkyl-dG) lesions are among the most mutagenic and prevalent alkylated DNA lesions that are associated with cancer initiation and progression. In this study, using a shuttle vector–based strand-specific PCR-competitive replication and adduct bypass assay in conjunction with tandem MS for product identification, we systematically assessed the repair and replicative bypass of a series of O6-alkyl-dG lesions, with the alkyl group being a Me, Et, nPr, iPr, nBu, iBu, or sBu, in several human cell lines.
Human DNA polymerase η has reverse transcriptase activity in cellular environmentsClassical DNA and RNA polymerase (pol) enzymes have defined roles with their respective substrates, but several pols have been found to have multiple functions. We reported previously that purified human DNA pol η (hpol η) can incorporate both deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) and ribonucleoside triphosphates (rNTPs) and can use both DNA and RNA as substrates. X-ray crystal structures revealed that two pol η residues, Phe-18 and Tyr-92, behave as steric gates to influence sugar selectivity.
Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of minor-groove O2-alkylthymidine lesions in human cellsEndogenous metabolism, environmental exposure, and cancer chemotherapy can lead to alkylation of DNA. It has been well documented that, among the different DNA alkylation products, minor-groove O2-alkylthymidine (O2-alkyldT) lesions are inefficiently repaired. In the present study, we examined how seven O2-alkyldT lesions, with the alkyl group being a Me, Et, nPr, iPr, nBu, iBu, or sBu, are recognized by the DNA replication machinery in human cells. We found that the replication bypass efficiencies of these lesions decrease with increasing length of the alkyl chain, and that these lesions induce substantial frequencies of T→A and T→G mutations.
Impact of tobacco-specific nitrosamine–derived DNA adducts on the efficiency and fidelity of DNA replication in human cellsThe tobacco-derived nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are known human carcinogens. Following metabolic activation, NNK and NNN can induce a number of DNA lesions, including several 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl (POB) adducts. However, it remains unclear to what extent these lesions affect the efficiency and accuracy of DNA replication and how their replicative bypass is influenced by translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases. In this study, we investigated the effects of three stable POB DNA adducts (O2-POB-dT, O4-POB-dT, and O6-POB-dG) on the efficiency and fidelity of DNA replication in HEK293T human cells.