DNA and Chromosomes
Enzymatic bypass and the structural basis of miscoding opposite the DNA adduct 1,N2-ethenodeoxyguanosine by human DNA translesion polymerase ηEtheno (ε)-adducts, e.g., 1,N2-ε−guanine (1,N2-ε-G) and 1,N6-ε−adenine (1,N6-ε-A), are formed through the reaction of DNA with metabolites of vinyl compounds or with lipid peroxidation products. These lesions are known to be mutagenic, but it is unknown how they lead to errors in DNA replication that are bypassed by DNA polymerases. Here we report the structural basis of misincorporation frequencies across from 1,N2-ε-G by human DNA polymerase (hpol) η. In single-nucleotide insertions opposite the adduct 1,N2-ε-G, hpol η preferentially inserted dGTP, followed by dATP, dTTP, and dCTP.
Structural and Kinetic Analysis of Miscoding Opposite the DNA Adduct 1,N6-Ethenodeoxyadenosine by Human Translesion DNA Polymerase η1,N6-Ethenodeoxyadenosine (1,N6-ϵdA) is the major etheno lesion formed in the reaction of DNA with epoxides substituted with good leaving groups (e.g. vinyl chloride epoxide). This lesion is also formed endogenously in DNA from lipid oxidation. Recombinant human DNA polymerase η (hpol η) can replicate oligonucleotide templates containing 1,N6-ϵdA. In steady-state kinetic analysis, hpol η preferred to incorporate dATP and dGTP, compared with dTTP. Mass spectral analysis of incorporation products also showed preferred purine (A, G) incorporation and extensive −1 frameshifts, suggesting pairing of the inserted purine and slippage before further replication.
Roles of Residues Arg-61 and Gln-38 of Human DNA Polymerase η in Bypass of Deoxyguanosine and 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosineBackground: Arg-61 and Gln-38 of human DNA polymerase (hpol) η play important roles in the catalytic reaction.Results: Mutations R61M or Q38A/R61A dramatically disrupt the activity of hpol η.Conclusion: Polarized water molecules can mimic and partially compensate for the missing side chains of Arg-61 and Gln-38 in the Q38A/R61A mutant.Significance: The positioning and positive charge of Arg-61 synergistically contribute to the activity of hpol η, with additional effects of Gln-38.