DNA and Chromosomes
- Aside from abasic sites and ribonucleotides, the DNA adduct N7-methyl deoxyguanosine (N7-CH3 dG) is one of the most abundant lesions in mammalian DNA. Because N7-CH3 dG is unstable, leading to deglycosylation and ring-opening, its miscoding potential is not well-understood. Here, we employed a 2′-fluoro isostere approach to synthesize an oligonucleotide containing an analog of this lesion (N7-CH3 2′-F dG) and examined its miscoding potential with four Y-family translesion synthesis DNA polymerases (pols): human pol (hpol) η, hpol κ, and hpol ι and Dpo4 from the archaeal thermophile Sulfolobus solfataricus.
- DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) are bulky DNA lesions that form both endogenously and following exposure to bis-electrophiles such as common antitumor agents. The structural and biological consequences of DPCs have not been fully elucidated due to the complexity of these adducts. The most common site of DPC formation in DNA following treatment with bis-electrophiles such as nitrogen mustards and cisplatin is the N7 position of guanine, but the resulting conjugates are hydrolytically labile and thus are not suitable for structural and biological studies.
- Ribonucleotides and 2′-deoxyribonucleotides are the basic units for RNA and DNA, respectively, and the only difference is the extra 2′-OH group on the ribonucleotide sugar. Cellular rNTP concentrations are much higher than those of dNTP. When copying DNA, DNA polymerases not only select the base of the incoming dNTP to form a Watson-Crick pair with the template base but also distinguish the sugar moiety. Some DNA polymerases use a steric gate residue to prevent rNTP incorporation by creating a clash with the 2′-OH group.