DNA and Chromosomes
Histone chaperone ASF1 acts with RIF1 to promote DNA end joining in BRCA1-deficient cellsReplication timing regulatory factor 1 (RIF1) acts downstream of p53-binding protein 53BP1 to inhibit the resection of DNA broken ends, which plays critical roles in determining the DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice between nonhomologous end joining and homologous recombination (HR). However, the mechanism by which this choice is made is not yet clear. In this study, we identified that histone chaperone protein ASF1 associates with RIF1 and regulates RIF1-dependent functions in the DNA damage response.
Stable maintenance of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex is sufficient to restore the DNA double-strand break response in cells lacking RecQL4 helicase activityThe proper cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for maintaining the integrity of the genome. RecQL4, a DNA helicase of which mutations are associated with Rothmund–Thomson syndrome (RTS), is required for the DNA DSB response. However, the mechanism by which RecQL4 performs these essential roles in the DSB response remains unknown. Here, we show that RecQL4 and its helicase activity are required for maintaining the stability of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex on DSB sites during a DSB response.
Direct interaction of DNA repair protein tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 1 and the DNA ligase III catalytic domain is regulated by phosphorylation of its flexible N-terminusTyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) and DNA Ligase IIIα (LigIIIα) are key enzymes in single-strand break (SSB) repair. TDP1 removes 3′-tyrosine residues remaining after degradation of DNA topoisomerase (TOP) 1 cleavage complexes trapped by either DNA lesions or TOP1 inhibitors. It is not known how TDP1 is linked to subsequent processing and LigIIIα-catalyzed joining of the SSB. Here we define a direct interaction between the TDP1 catalytic domain and the LigIII DNA-binding domain (DBD) regulated by conformational changes in the unstructured TDP1 N-terminal region induced by phosphorylation and/or alterations in amino acid sequence.
ATR activation is regulated by dimerization of ATR activating proteinsThe checkpoint kinase ATR regulates DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and other DNA damage and replication stress responses. ATR signaling is stimulated by an ATR activating protein, and in metazoan cells, there are at least two ATR activators: TOPBP1 and ETAA1. Current evidence indicates TOPBP1 and ETAA1 activate ATR via the same biochemical mechanism, but several aspects of this mechanism remain undefined. For example, ATR and its obligate binding partner ATR interacting protein (ATRIP) form a tetrameric complex consisting of two ATR and two ATRIP molecules, but whether TOPBP1 or ETAA1 dimerization is similarly required for ATR function is unclear.
Phosphorylation of SMURF2 by ATM exerts a negative feedback control of DNA damage responseTimely repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is essential to maintaining genomic integrity and preventing illnesses induced by genetic abnormalities. We previously demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase SMURF2 plays a critical tumor suppressing role via its interaction with RNF20 (ring finger protein 20) in shaping chromatin landscape and preserving genomic stability. However, the mechanism that mobilizes SMURF2 in response to DNA damage remains unclear. Using biochemical approaches and MS analysis, we show that upon the onset of the DNA-damage response, SMURF2 becomes phosphorylated at Ser384 by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) serine/threonine kinase, and this phosphorylation is required for its interaction with RNF20.
Activation of Tel1ATM kinase requires Rad50 ATPase and long nucleosome-free DNA but no DNA endsIn Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Tel1 protein kinase, the ortholog of human ataxia telangiectasia–mutated (ATM), is activated in response to DNA double-strand breaks. Biochemical studies with human ATM and genetic studies in yeast suggest that recruitment and activation of Tel1ATM depends on the heterotrimeric MRXMRN complex, composed of Mre11, Rad50, and Xrs2 (human Nbs1). However, the mechanism of activation of Tel1 by MRX remains unclear, as does the role of effector DNA. Here we demonstrate that dsDNA and MRX activate Tel1 synergistically.