DNA and Chromosomes
Yeast 9-1-1 complex acts as a sliding clamp for DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase εEukaryotic cells harbor two DNA-binding clamps, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and another clamp commonly referred to as 9-1-1 clamp. In contrast to the essential role of PCNA in DNA replication as a sliding clamp for DNA polymerase (Pol) δ, no such role in DNA synthesis has been identified for the human 9-1-1 clamp or the orthologous yeast 17-3-1 clamp. The only role identified for either the 9-1-1 or 17-3-1 clamp is in the recruitment of signal transduction kinases, which affect the activation of cell cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage.
In vitro eradication of abasic site-mediated DNA–peptide/protein cross-links by Escherichia coli long-patch base excision repairApurinic/apyrimidinic (AP or abasic) sites are among the most abundant DNA lesions. Numerous proteins within different organisms ranging from bacteria to human have been demonstrated to react with AP sites to form covalent Schiff base DNA–protein cross-links (DPCs). These DPCs are unstable due to their spontaneous hydrolysis, but the half-lives of these cross-links can be as long as several hours. Such long-lived DPCs are extremely toxic due to their large sizes, which physically block DNA replication.
DNA polymerase θ promotes CAG•CTG repeat expansions in Huntington’s disease via insertion sequences of its catalytic domainHuntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive dementia, psychiatric problems, and chorea, is known to be caused by CAG repeat expansions in the HD gene HTT. However, the mechanism of this pathology is not fully understood. The translesion DNA polymerase θ (Polθ) carries a large insertion sequence in its catalytic domain, which has been shown to allow DNA loop-outs in the primer strand. As a result of high levels of oxidative DNA damage in neural cells and Polθ's subsequent involvement in base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage, we hypothesized that Polθ contributes to CAG repeat expansion while repairing oxidative damage within HTT.
Motifs of the C-terminal domain of MCM9 direct localization to sites of mitomycin-C damage for RAD51 recruitmentThe MCM8/9 complex is implicated in aiding fork progression and facilitating homologous recombination (HR) in response to several DNA damage agents. MCM9 itself is an outlier within the MCM family containing a long C-terminal extension (CTE) comprising 42% of the total length, but with no known functional components and high predicted disorder. In this report, we identify and characterize two unique motifs within the primarily unstructured CTE that are required for localization of MCM8/9 to sites of mitomycin C (MMC)-induced DNA damage.
Enzymatically active apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 is released by mammalian cells through exosomesThe apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 (APE1), the main AP-endonuclease of the DNA base excision repair pathway, is a key molecule of interest to researchers due to its unsuspected roles in different nonrepair activities, such as: i) adaptive cell response to genotoxic stress, ii) regulation of gene expression, and iii) processing of microRNAs, which make it an excellent drug target for cancer treatment. We and others recently demonstrated that APE1 can be secreted in the extracellular environment and that serum APE1 may represent a novel prognostic biomarker in hepatocellular and non-small-cell lung cancers.
Molecular dynamics approach to identification of new OGG1 cancer-associated somatic variants with impaired activityDNA of living cells is always exposed to damaging factors. To counteract the consequences of DNA lesions, cells have evolved several DNA repair systems, among which base excision repair is one of the most important systems. Many currently used antitumor drugs act by damaging DNA, and DNA repair often interferes with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in cancer cells. Tumors are usually extremely genetically heterogeneous, often bearing mutations in DNA repair genes. Thus, knowledge of the functionality of cancer-related variants of proteins involved in DNA damage response and repair is of great interest for personalization of cancer therapy.
The role of cysteines in the structure and function of OGG18-Oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1) is a base excision repair enzyme responsible for the recognition and removal of 8-oxoguanine, a commonly occurring oxidized DNA modification. OGG1 prevents the accumulation of mutations and regulates the transcription of various oxidative stress–response genes. In addition to targeting DNA, oxidative stress can affect proteins like OGG1 itself, specifically at cysteine residues. Previous work has shown that the function of OGG1 is sensitive to oxidants, with the cysteine residues of OGG1 being the most likely site of oxidation.