DNA and Chromosomes
Yeast 9-1-1 complex acts as a sliding clamp for DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase εEukaryotic cells harbor two DNA-binding clamps, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and another clamp commonly referred to as 9-1-1 clamp. In contrast to the essential role of PCNA in DNA replication as a sliding clamp for DNA polymerase (Pol) δ, no such role in DNA synthesis has been identified for the human 9-1-1 clamp or the orthologous yeast 17-3-1 clamp. The only role identified for either the 9-1-1 or 17-3-1 clamp is in the recruitment of signal transduction kinases, which affect the activation of cell cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage.
The nuclease activity of DNA2 promotes exonuclease 1–independent mismatch repairThe DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is a major DNA repair system that corrects DNA replication errors. In eukaryotes, the MMR system functions via mechanisms both dependent on and independent of exonuclease 1 (EXO1), an enzyme that has multiple roles in DNA metabolism. Although the mechanism of EXO1-dependent MMR is well understood, less is known about EXO1-independent MMR. Here, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence that the DNA2 nuclease/helicase has a role in EXO1-independent MMR. Biochemical reactions reconstituted with purified human proteins demonstrated that the nuclease activity of DNA2 promotes an EXO1-independent MMR reaction via a mismatch excision-independent mechanism that involves DNA polymerase δ.
Pif1, RPA, and FEN1 modulate the ability of DNA polymerase δ to overcome protein barriers during DNA synthesisSuccessful DNA replication requires carefully regulated mechanisms to overcome numerous obstacles that naturally occur throughout chromosomal DNA. Scattered across the genome are tightly bound proteins, such as transcription factors and nucleosomes, that are necessary for cell function, but that also have the potential to impede timely DNA replication. Using biochemically reconstituted systems, we show that two transcription factors, yeast Reb1 and Tbf1, and a tightly positioned nucleosome, are strong blocks to the strand displacement DNA synthesis activity of DNA polymerase δ.