DNA and Chromosomes
Characterization of the Escherichia coli XPD/Rad3 iron-sulfur helicase YoaA in complex with the DNA polymerase III clamp loader subunit chi (χ)Escherichia coli YoaA aids in the resolution of DNA damage that halts DNA synthesis in vivo in conjunction with χ, an accessory subunit of DNA polymerase III. YoaA and χ form a discrete complex separate from the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, but little is known about how YoaA and χ work together to help the replication fork overcome damage. Although YoaA is predicted to be an iron-sulfur helicase in the XPD/Rad3 helicase family based on sequence analysis, the biochemical activities of YoaA have not been described.
Rapid excision of oxidized adenine by human thymine DNA glycosylaseOxidation of DNA bases generates mutagenic and cytotoxic lesions that are implicated in cancer and other diseases. Oxidative base lesions, including 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, are typically removed through base excision repair. In addition, oxidized deoxynucleotides such as 8-oxo-dGTP are depleted by sanitizing enzymes to preclude DNA incorporation. While pathways that counter threats posed by 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine are well characterized, mechanisms protecting against the major adenine oxidation product, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoadenine (oxoA), are poorly understood.
The SOS response-associated peptidase (SRAP) domain of YedK catalyzes ring opening of abasic sites and reversal of its DNA–protein cross-linkApurinic/apyrimidinic (AP, or abasic) sites in DNA are one of the most common forms of DNA damage. AP sites are reactive and form cross-links to both proteins and DNA, are prone to strand breakage, and inhibit DNA replication and transcription. The replication-associated AP site repair protein HMCES protects cells from strand breaks, inhibits mutagenic translesion synthesis, and participates in repair of interstrand DNA cross-links derived from AP sites by forming a stable thiazolidine DNA–protein cross-link (DPC) to AP sites in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA).
In vitro eradication of abasic site-mediated DNA–peptide/protein cross-links by Escherichia coli long-patch base excision repairApurinic/apyrimidinic (AP or abasic) sites are among the most abundant DNA lesions. Numerous proteins within different organisms ranging from bacteria to human have been demonstrated to react with AP sites to form covalent Schiff base DNA–protein cross-links (DPCs). These DPCs are unstable due to their spontaneous hydrolysis, but the half-lives of these cross-links can be as long as several hours. Such long-lived DPCs are extremely toxic due to their large sizes, which physically block DNA replication.
Stable G-quadruplex DNA structures promote replication-dependent genome instabilityG-quadruplex (G4)–prone structures are abundant in mammalian genomes, where they have been shown to influence DNA replication, transcription, and genome stability. In this article, we constructed cells with a single ectopic homopurine/homopyrimidine repeat tract derived from the polycystic kidney disease type 1 (PKD1) locus, which is capable of forming triplex (H3) and G4 DNA structures. We show that ligand stabilization of these G4 structures results in deletions of the G4 consensus sequence, as well as kilobase deletions spanning the G4 and ectopic sites.
Oligomerization of DNA replication regulatory protein RADX is essential to maintain replication fork stabilityGenome integrity requires complete and accurate DNA replication once per cell division cycle. Replication stress poses obstacles to this process that must be overcome to prevent replication fork collapse. An important regulator of replication fork stability is the RAD51 protein, which promotes replication fork reversal and protects nascent DNA strands from nuclease-mediated degradation. Many regulatory proteins control these RAD51 activities, including RADX, which binds both ssDNA and RAD51 at replication forks to ensure that fork reversal is confined to stalled forks.
Measurement of deaminated cytosine adducts in DNA using a novel hybrid thymine DNA glycosylaseThe hydrolytic deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine drives many of the transition mutations observed in human cancer. The deamination-induced mutagenic intermediates include either uracil or thymine adducts mispaired with guanine. While a substantial array of methods exist to measure other types of DNA adducts, the cytosine deamination adducts pose unusual analytical problems, and adequate methods to measure them have not yet been developed. We describe here a novel hybrid thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) that is comprised of a 29-amino acid sequence from human TDG linked to the catalytic domain of a thymine glycosylase found in an archaeal thermophilic bacterium.
DNA polymerases η and κ bypass N2-guanine-O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase cross-linked DNA-peptidesDNA-protein cross-links are formed when proteins become covalently trapped with DNA in the presence of exogenous or endogenous alkylating agents. If left unrepaired, they inhibit transcription as well as DNA unwinding during replication and may result in genome instability or even cell death. The DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine DNA-alkyltransferase (AGT) is known to form DNA cross-links in the presence of the carcinogen 1,2-dibromoethane, resulting in G:C to T:A transversions and other mutations in both bacterial and mammalian cells.
Fused in sarcoma regulates DNA replication timing and kineticsFused in sarcoma (FUS) encodes an RNA-binding protein with diverse roles in transcriptional activation and RNA splicing. While oncogenic fusions of FUS and transcription factor DNA-binding domains are associated with soft tissue sarcomas, dominant mutations in FUS can cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. FUS has also been implicated in genome maintenance. However, the underlying mechanisms of its actions in genome stability are unknown. Here, we applied gene editing, functional reconstitution, and integrated proteomics and transcriptomics to illuminate roles for FUS in DNA replication and repair.
Epithelial cell transforming factor ECT2 is an important regulator of DNA double-strand break repair and genome stabilityProteins containing breast cancer type 1 (BRCA1) C-terminal domains play crucial roles in response to and repair of DNA damage. Epithelial cell transforming factor (epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 [ECT2]) is a member of the BRCA1 C-terminal protein family, but it is not known if ECT2 directly contributes to DNA repair. In this study, we report that ECT2 is recruited to DNA lesions in a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1–dependent manner. Using co-immunoprecipitation analysis, we showed that ECT2 physically associates with KU70–KU80 and BRCA1, proteins involved in nonhomologous end joining and homologous recombination, respectively.
Motifs of the C-terminal domain of MCM9 direct localization to sites of mitomycin-C damage for RAD51 recruitmentThe MCM8/9 complex is implicated in aiding fork progression and facilitating homologous recombination (HR) in response to several DNA damage agents. MCM9 itself is an outlier within the MCM family containing a long C-terminal extension (CTE) comprising 42% of the total length, but with no known functional components and high predicted disorder. In this report, we identify and characterize two unique motifs within the primarily unstructured CTE that are required for localization of MCM8/9 to sites of mitomycin C (MMC)-induced DNA damage.
Age and insulin-like growth factor-1 impact PCNA monoubiquitination in UVB-irradiated human skinNonmelanoma skin cancers occur primarily in individuals over the age of 60 and are characterized by an abundance of ultraviolet (UV) signature mutations in keratinocyte DNA. Though geriatric skin removes UV photoproducts from DNA less efficiently than young adult skin, it is not known whether the utilization of other prosurvival but potentially mutagenic DNA damage tolerance systems such as translesion synthesis (TLS) is altered in older individuals. Using monoubiquitination of the replicative DNA polymerase clamp protein PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) as a biochemical marker of TLS pathway activation, we find that UVB exposure of the skin of individuals over the age of 65 results in a higher level of PCNA monoubiquitination than in the skin of young adults.
Molecular dynamics approach to identification of new OGG1 cancer-associated somatic variants with impaired activityDNA of living cells is always exposed to damaging factors. To counteract the consequences of DNA lesions, cells have evolved several DNA repair systems, among which base excision repair is one of the most important systems. Many currently used antitumor drugs act by damaging DNA, and DNA repair often interferes with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in cancer cells. Tumors are usually extremely genetically heterogeneous, often bearing mutations in DNA repair genes. Thus, knowledge of the functionality of cancer-related variants of proteins involved in DNA damage response and repair is of great interest for personalization of cancer therapy.
Phosphorylation of SMURF2 by ATM exerts a negative feedback control of DNA damage responseTimely repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is essential to maintaining genomic integrity and preventing illnesses induced by genetic abnormalities. We previously demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase SMURF2 plays a critical tumor suppressing role via its interaction with RNF20 (ring finger protein 20) in shaping chromatin landscape and preserving genomic stability. However, the mechanism that mobilizes SMURF2 in response to DNA damage remains unclear. Using biochemical approaches and MS analysis, we show that upon the onset of the DNA-damage response, SMURF2 becomes phosphorylated at Ser384 by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) serine/threonine kinase, and this phosphorylation is required for its interaction with RNF20.
The role of cysteines in the structure and function of OGG18-Oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1) is a base excision repair enzyme responsible for the recognition and removal of 8-oxoguanine, a commonly occurring oxidized DNA modification. OGG1 prevents the accumulation of mutations and regulates the transcription of various oxidative stress–response genes. In addition to targeting DNA, oxidative stress can affect proteins like OGG1 itself, specifically at cysteine residues. Previous work has shown that the function of OGG1 is sensitive to oxidants, with the cysteine residues of OGG1 being the most likely site of oxidation.
Hoogsteen base pairs increase the susceptibility of double-stranded DNA to cytotoxic damageAs the Watson–Crick faces of nucleobases are protected in dsDNA, it is commonly assumed that deleterious alkylation damage to the Watson–Crick faces of nucleobases predominantly occurs when DNA becomes single-stranded during replication and transcription. However, damage to the Watson–Crick faces of nucleobases has been reported in dsDNA in vitro through mechanisms that are not understood. In addition, the extent of protection from methylation damage conferred by dsDNA relative to ssDNA has not been quantified.
Lysine acetylation regulates the activity of nuclear Pif1In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Pif1 helicase functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication and repair processes, preferentially unwinding RNA:DNA hybrids and resolving G-quadruplex structures. We sought to determine how the various activities of Pif1 are regulated in vivo. Here, we report lysine acetylation of nuclear Pif1 and demonstrate that it influences both Pif1's cellular roles and core biochemical activities. Using Pif1 overexpression toxicity assays, we determined that the acetyltransferase NuA4 and deacetylase Rpd3 are primarily responsible for the dynamic acetylation of nuclear Pif1.
An autoinhibitory role for the GRF zinc finger domain of DNA glycosylase NEIL3The NEIL3 DNA glycosylase maintains genome integrity during replication by excising oxidized bases from single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and unhooking interstrand cross-links (ICLs) at fork structures. In addition to its N-terminal catalytic glycosylase domain, NEIL3 contains two tandem C-terminal GRF-type zinc fingers that are absent in the other NEIL paralogs. ssDNA binding by the GRF–ZF motifs helps recruit NEIL3 to replication forks converged at an ICL, but the nature of DNA binding and the effect of the GRF–ZF domain on catalysis of base excision and ICL unhooking is unknown.
Replication stress at microsatellites causes DNA double-strand breaks and break-induced replicationShort tandemly repeated DNA sequences, termed microsatellites, are abundant in the human genome. These microsatellites exhibit length instability and susceptibility to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) due to their tendency to form stable non-B DNA structures. Replication-dependent microsatellite DSBs are linked to genome instability signatures in human developmental diseases and cancers. To probe the causes and consequences of microsatellite DSBs, we designed a dual-fluorescence reporter system to detect DSBs at expanded (CTG/CAG)n and polypurine/polypyrimidine (Pu/Py) mirror repeat structures alongside the c-myc replication origin integrated at a single ectopic chromosomal site.
AI26 inhibits the ADP-ribosylhydrolase ARH3 and suppresses DNA damage repairThe ADP-ribosylhydrolase ARH3 plays a key role in DNA damage repair, digesting poly(ADP-ribose) and removing ADP-ribose from serine residues of the substrates. Specific inhibitors that selectively target ARH3 would be a useful tool to examine DNA damage repair, as well as a possible strategy for tumor suppression. However, efforts to date have not identified any suitable compounds. Here, we used in silico and biochemistry screening to search for ARH3 inhibitors. We discovered a small molecule compound named ARH3 inhibitor 26 (AI26) as, to our knowledge, the first ARH3 inhibitor.
R-loops promote trinucleotide repeat deletion through DNA base excision repair enzymatic activitiesTrinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion and deletion are responsible for over 40 neurodegenerative diseases and associated with cancer. TNRs can undergo somatic instability that is mediated by DNA damage and repair and gene transcription. Recent studies have pointed toward a role for R-loops in causing TNR expansion and deletion, and it has been shown that base excision repair (BER) can result in CAG repeat deletion from R-loops in yeast. However, it remains unknown how BER in R-loops can mediate TNR instability.
Acetylation modulates the Fanconi anemia pathway by protecting FAAP20 from ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradationFanconi anemia (FA) is a chromosome instability syndrome of children caused by inherited mutations in one of FA genes, which together constitute a DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair, or the FA pathway. Monoubiquitination of Fanconi anemia group D2 protein (FANCD2) by the multisubunit ubiquitin E3 ligase, the FA core complex, is an obligate step in activation of the FA pathway, and its activity needs to be tightly regulated. FAAP20 is a key structural component of the FA core complex, and regulated proteolysis of FAAP20 mediated by prolyl cis-trans isomerization and phosphorylation at a consensus phosphodegron motif is essential for preserving the integrity of the FA core complex, and thus FANCD2 monoubiquitination.
Inhibition of the ATR kinase enhances 5-FU sensitivity independently of nonhomologous end-joining and homologous recombination repair pathwaysThe anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is cytotoxic and often used to treat various cancers. 5-FU is thought to inhibit the enzyme thymidylate synthase, which plays a role in nucleotide synthesis and has been found to induce single- and double-strand DNA breaks. ATR Ser/Thr kinase (ATR) is a principal kinase in the DNA damage response and is activated in response to UV– and chemotherapeutic drug–induced DNA replication stress, but its role in cellular responses to 5-FU is unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of ATR inhibition on 5-FU sensitivity of mammalian cells.
Lysines in the lyase active site of DNA polymerase β destabilize nonspecific DNA binding, facilitating searching and DNA gap recognitionDNA polymerase (pol) β catalyzes two reactions at DNA gaps generated during base excision repair, gap-filling DNA synthesis and lyase-dependent 5´-end deoxyribose phosphate removal. The lyase domain of pol β has been proposed to function in DNA gap recognition and to facilitate DNA scanning during substrate search. However, the mechanisms and molecular interactions used by pol β for substrate search and recognition are not clear. To provide insight into this process, a comparison was made of the DNA binding affinities of WT pol β, pol λ, and pol μ, and several variants of pol β, for 1-nt-gap-containing and undamaged DNA.
A non-canonical role for the DNA glycosylase NEIL3 in suppressing APE1 endonuclease-mediated ssDNA damageThe DNA glycosylase NEIL3 has been implicated in DNA repair pathways including the base excision repair and the interstrand cross-link repair pathways via its DNA glycosylase and/or AP lyase activity, which are considered canonical roles of NEIL3 in genome integrity. Compared with the other DNA glycosylases NEIL1 and NEIL2, Xenopus laevis NEIL3 C terminus has two highly conserved zinc finger motifs containing GRXF residues (designated as Zf-GRF). It has been demonstrated that the minor AP endonuclease APE2 contains only one Zf-GRF motif mediating interaction with single-strand DNA (ssDNA), whereas the major AP endonuclease APE1 does not.