DNA and Chromosomes
chi sequences switch the RecBCD helicase–nuclease complex from degradative to replicative modes during the completion of DNA replicationAccurately completing DNA replication when two forks converge is essential to genomic stability. The RecBCD helicase–nuclease complex plays a central role in completion by promoting resection and joining of the excess DNA created when replisomes converge. chi sequences alter RecBCD activity and localize with crossover hotspots during sexual events in bacteria, yet their functional role during chromosome replication remains unknown. Here, we use two-dimensional agarose gel analysis to show that chi induces replication on substrates containing convergent forks.
Characterization of the Escherichia coli XPD/Rad3 iron-sulfur helicase YoaA in complex with the DNA polymerase III clamp loader subunit chi (χ)Escherichia coli YoaA aids in the resolution of DNA damage that halts DNA synthesis in vivo in conjunction with χ, an accessory subunit of DNA polymerase III. YoaA and χ form a discrete complex separate from the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, but little is known about how YoaA and χ work together to help the replication fork overcome damage. Although YoaA is predicted to be an iron-sulfur helicase in the XPD/Rad3 helicase family based on sequence analysis, the biochemical activities of YoaA have not been described.
The SOS response-associated peptidase (SRAP) domain of YedK catalyzes ring opening of abasic sites and reversal of its DNA–protein cross-linkApurinic/apyrimidinic (AP, or abasic) sites in DNA are one of the most common forms of DNA damage. AP sites are reactive and form cross-links to both proteins and DNA, are prone to strand breakage, and inhibit DNA replication and transcription. The replication-associated AP site repair protein HMCES protects cells from strand breaks, inhibits mutagenic translesion synthesis, and participates in repair of interstrand DNA cross-links derived from AP sites by forming a stable thiazolidine DNA–protein cross-link (DPC) to AP sites in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA).
Extended DNA-binding interfaces beyond the canonical SAP domain contribute to the function of replication stress regulator SDE2 at DNA replication forksElevated DNA replication stress causes instability of the DNA replication fork and increased DNA mutations, which underlies tumorigenesis. The DNA replication stress regulator silencing-defective 2 (SDE2) is known to bind to TIMELESS (TIM), a protein of the fork protection complex, and enhances its stability, thereby supporting replisome activity at DNA replication forks. However, the DNA-binding activity of SDE2 is not well defined. Here, we structurally and functionally characterize a new conserved DNA-binding motif related to the SAP (SAF-A/B, Acinus, PIAS) domain in human SDE2 and establish its preference for ssDNA.
The p97 segregase cofactor Ubxn7 facilitates replisome disassembly during S-phaseComplex cellular processes are driven by the regulated assembly and disassembly of large multiprotein complexes. While we are beginning to understand the molecular mechanism for assembly of the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery (replisome), we still know relatively little about the regulation of its disassembly at replication termination. Recently, the first elements of this process have emerged, revealing that the replicative helicase, at the heart of the replisome, is polyubiquitylated prior to unloading and that this unloading requires p97 segregase activity.
Stable G-quadruplex DNA structures promote replication-dependent genome instabilityG-quadruplex (G4)–prone structures are abundant in mammalian genomes, where they have been shown to influence DNA replication, transcription, and genome stability. In this article, we constructed cells with a single ectopic homopurine/homopyrimidine repeat tract derived from the polycystic kidney disease type 1 (PKD1) locus, which is capable of forming triplex (H3) and G4 DNA structures. We show that ligand stabilization of these G4 structures results in deletions of the G4 consensus sequence, as well as kilobase deletions spanning the G4 and ectopic sites.
The ubiquitin-binding domain of DNA polymerase η directly binds to DNA clamp PCNA and regulates translesion DNA synthesisDNA polymerase eta (Polη) is a unique translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) enzyme required for the error-free bypass of ultraviolet ray (UV)-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Therefore, its deficiency confers cellular sensitivity to UV radiation and an increased rate of UV-induced mutagenesis. Polη possesses a ubiquitin-binding zinc finger (ubz) domain and a PCNA-interacting-protein (pip) motif in the carboxy-terminal region. The role of the Polη pip motif in PCNA interaction required for DNA polymerase recruitment to the stalled replication fork has been demonstrated in earlier studies; however, the function of the ubz domain remains divisive.
Termination of DNA replication at Tus-ter barriers results in under-replication of template DNAThe complete and accurate duplication of genomic information is vital to maintain genome stability in all domains of life. In Escherichia coli, replication termination, the final stage of the duplication process, is confined to the “replication fork trap” region by multiple unidirectional fork barriers formed by the binding of Tus protein to genomic ter sites. Termination typically occurs away from Tus-ter complexes, but they become part of the fork fusion process when a delay to one replisome allows the second replisome to travel more than halfway around the chromosome.
Lamin A/C recruits ssDNA protective proteins RPA and RAD51 to stalled replication forks to maintain fork stabilityLamin A/C provides a nuclear scaffold for compartmentalization of genome function that is important for genome integrity. Lamin A/C dysfunction is associated with cancer, aging, and degenerative diseases. The mechanisms whereby lamin A/C regulates genome stability remain poorly understood. We demonstrate a crucial role for lamin A/C in DNA replication. Lamin A/C binds to nascent DNA, especially during replication stress (RS), ensuring the recruitment of replication fork protective factors RPA and RAD51.
Fused in sarcoma regulates DNA replication timing and kineticsFused in sarcoma (FUS) encodes an RNA-binding protein with diverse roles in transcriptional activation and RNA splicing. While oncogenic fusions of FUS and transcription factor DNA-binding domains are associated with soft tissue sarcomas, dominant mutations in FUS can cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. FUS has also been implicated in genome maintenance. However, the underlying mechanisms of its actions in genome stability are unknown. Here, we applied gene editing, functional reconstitution, and integrated proteomics and transcriptomics to illuminate roles for FUS in DNA replication and repair.
Interdomain connecting loop and J loop structures determine cross-species compatibility of PCNAEukaryotic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an essential role in orchestrating the assembly of the replisome complex, stimulating processive DNA synthesis, and recruiting other regulatory proteins during the DNA damage response. PCNA and its binding partner network are relatively conserved in eukaryotes, and it exhibits extraordinary structural similarity across species. However, despite this structural similarity, the PCNA of a given species is rarely functional in heterologous systems.
Enzymatic bypass of an N6-deoxyadenosine DNA–ethylene dibromide–peptide cross-link by translesion DNA polymerasesUnrepaired DNA–protein cross-links, due to their bulky nature, can stall replication forks and result in genome instability. Large DNA–protein cross-links can be cleaved into DNA–peptide cross-links, but the extent to which these smaller fragments disrupt normal replication is not clear. Ethylene dibromide (1,2-dibromoethane) is a known carcinogen that can cross-link the repair protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) to the N6 position of deoxyadenosine (dA) in DNA, as well as four other positions in DNA.
Age and insulin-like growth factor-1 impact PCNA monoubiquitination in UVB-irradiated human skinNonmelanoma skin cancers occur primarily in individuals over the age of 60 and are characterized by an abundance of ultraviolet (UV) signature mutations in keratinocyte DNA. Though geriatric skin removes UV photoproducts from DNA less efficiently than young adult skin, it is not known whether the utilization of other prosurvival but potentially mutagenic DNA damage tolerance systems such as translesion synthesis (TLS) is altered in older individuals. Using monoubiquitination of the replicative DNA polymerase clamp protein PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) as a biochemical marker of TLS pathway activation, we find that UVB exposure of the skin of individuals over the age of 65 results in a higher level of PCNA monoubiquitination than in the skin of young adults.
Enzymatic bypass and the structural basis of miscoding opposite the DNA adduct 1,N2-ethenodeoxyguanosine by human DNA translesion polymerase ηEtheno (ε)-adducts, e.g., 1,N2-ε−guanine (1,N2-ε-G) and 1,N6-ε−adenine (1,N6-ε-A), are formed through the reaction of DNA with metabolites of vinyl compounds or with lipid peroxidation products. These lesions are known to be mutagenic, but it is unknown how they lead to errors in DNA replication that are bypassed by DNA polymerases. Here we report the structural basis of misincorporation frequencies across from 1,N2-ε-G by human DNA polymerase (hpol) η. In single-nucleotide insertions opposite the adduct 1,N2-ε-G, hpol η preferentially inserted dGTP, followed by dATP, dTTP, and dCTP.
Polymerase γ efficiently replicates through many natural template barriers but stalls at the HSP1 quadruplexFaithful replication of the mitochondrial genome is carried out by a set of key nuclear-encoded proteins. DNA polymerase γ is a core component of the mtDNA replisome and the only replicative DNA polymerase localized to mitochondria. The asynchronous mechanism of mtDNA replication predicts that the replication machinery encounters dsDNA and unique physical barriers such as structured genes, G-quadruplexes, and other obstacles. In vitro experiments here provide evidence that the polymerase γ heterotrimer is well-adapted to efficiently synthesize DNA, despite the presence of many naturally occurring roadblocks.
Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis defines roles for two metal ions in DNA polymerase specificity and catalysisMagnesium ions play a critical role in catalysis by many enzymes and contribute to the fidelity of DNA polymerases through a two-metal ion mechanism. However, specificity is a kinetic phenomenon and the roles of Mg2+ ions in each step in the catalysis have not been resolved. We first examined the roles of Mg2+ by kinetic analysis of single nucleotide incorporation catalyzed by HIV reverse transcriptase. We show that Mg.dNTP binding induces an enzyme conformational change at a rate that is independent of free Mg2+ concentration.
Kinetic investigation of the polymerase and exonuclease activities of human DNA polymerase ε holoenzymeIn eukaryotic DNA replication, DNA polymerase ε (Polε) is responsible for leading strand synthesis, whereas DNA polymerases α and δ synthesize the lagging strand. The human Polε (hPolε) holoenzyme is comprised of the catalytic p261 subunit and the noncatalytic p59, p17, and p12 small subunits. So far, the contribution of the noncatalytic subunits to hPolε function is not well understood. Using pre-steady-state kinetic methods, we established a minimal kinetic mechanism for DNA polymerization and editing catalyzed by the hPolε holoenzyme.
A human cancer cell line initiates DNA replication normally in the absence of ORC5 and ORC2 proteinsThe origin recognition complex (ORC), composed of six subunits, ORC1–6, binds to origins of replication as a ring-shaped heterohexameric ATPase that is believed to be essential to recruit and load MCM2–7, the minichromosome maintenance protein complex, around DNA and initiate DNA replication. We previously reported the creation of viable cancer cell lines that lacked detectable ORC1 or ORC2 protein without a reduction in the number of origins firing. Here, using CRISPR-Cas9–mediated mutations, we report that human HCT116 colon cancer cells also survive when ORC5 protein expression is abolished via a mutation in the initiator ATG of the ORC5 gene.
Conformational dynamics during high-fidelity DNA replication and translocation defined using a DNA polymerase with a fluorescent artificial amino acidWe address the role of enzyme conformational dynamics in specificity for a high-fidelity DNA polymerase responsible for genome replication. We present the complete characterization of the conformational dynamics during the correct nucleotide incorporation forward and reverse reactions using stopped-flow and rapid-quench methods with a T7 DNA polymerase variant containing a fluorescent unnatural amino acid, (7-hydroxy-4-coumarin-yl) ethylglycine, which provides a signal for enzyme conformational changes.
Pif1, RPA, and FEN1 modulate the ability of DNA polymerase δ to overcome protein barriers during DNA synthesisSuccessful DNA replication requires carefully regulated mechanisms to overcome numerous obstacles that naturally occur throughout chromosomal DNA. Scattered across the genome are tightly bound proteins, such as transcription factors and nucleosomes, that are necessary for cell function, but that also have the potential to impede timely DNA replication. Using biochemically reconstituted systems, we show that two transcription factors, yeast Reb1 and Tbf1, and a tightly positioned nucleosome, are strong blocks to the strand displacement DNA synthesis activity of DNA polymerase δ.
Lysine acetylation regulates the activity of nuclear Pif1In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Pif1 helicase functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication and repair processes, preferentially unwinding RNA:DNA hybrids and resolving G-quadruplex structures. We sought to determine how the various activities of Pif1 are regulated in vivo. Here, we report lysine acetylation of nuclear Pif1 and demonstrate that it influences both Pif1's cellular roles and core biochemical activities. Using Pif1 overexpression toxicity assays, we determined that the acetyltransferase NuA4 and deacetylase Rpd3 are primarily responsible for the dynamic acetylation of nuclear Pif1.
Replication stress at microsatellites causes DNA double-strand breaks and break-induced replicationShort tandemly repeated DNA sequences, termed microsatellites, are abundant in the human genome. These microsatellites exhibit length instability and susceptibility to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) due to their tendency to form stable non-B DNA structures. Replication-dependent microsatellite DSBs are linked to genome instability signatures in human developmental diseases and cancers. To probe the causes and consequences of microsatellite DSBs, we designed a dual-fluorescence reporter system to detect DSBs at expanded (CTG/CAG)n and polypurine/polypyrimidine (Pu/Py) mirror repeat structures alongside the c-myc replication origin integrated at a single ectopic chromosomal site.
Replication protein A binds RNA and promotes R-loop formationReplication protein A (RPA), a major eukaryotic ssDNA-binding protein, is essential for all metabolic processes that involve ssDNA, including DNA replication, repair, and damage signaling. To perform its functions, RPA binds ssDNA tightly. In contrast, it was presumed that RPA binds RNA weakly. However, recent data suggest that RPA may play a role in RNA metabolism. RPA stimulates RNA-templated DNA repair in vitro and associates in vivo with R-loops, the three-stranded structures consisting of an RNA-DNA hybrid and the displaced ssDNA strand.
DnaB helicase is recruited to the replication initiation complex via binding of DnaA domain I to the lateral surface of the DnaB N-terminal domainThe DNA replication protein DnaA in Escherichia coli constructs higher-order complexes on the origin, oriC, to unwind this region. DnaB helicase is loaded onto unwound oriC via interactions with the DnaC loader and the DnaA complex. The DnaB–DnaC complex is recruited to the DnaA complex via stable binding of DnaB to DnaA domain I. The DnaB–DnaC complex is then directed to unwound oriC via a weak interaction between DnaB and DnaA domain III. Previously, we showed that Phe46 in DnaA domain I binds to DnaB.
Two components of DNA replication-dependent LexA cleavageInduction of the SOS response, a cellular system triggered by DNA damage in bacteria, depends on DNA replication for the generation of the SOS signal, ssDNA. RecA binds to ssDNA, forming filaments that stimulate proteolytic cleavage of the LexA transcriptional repressor, allowing expression of > 40 gene products involved in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. Here, using a DNA replication system reconstituted in vitro in tandem with a LexA cleavage assay, we studied LexA cleavage during DNA replication of both undamaged and base-damaged templates.