DNA and Chromosomes
Extended DNA-binding interfaces beyond the canonical SAP domain contribute to the function of replication stress regulator SDE2 at DNA replication forksElevated DNA replication stress causes instability of the DNA replication fork and increased DNA mutations, which underlies tumorigenesis. The DNA replication stress regulator silencing-defective 2 (SDE2) is known to bind to TIMELESS (TIM), a protein of the fork protection complex, and enhances its stability, thereby supporting replisome activity at DNA replication forks. However, the DNA-binding activity of SDE2 is not well defined. Here, we structurally and functionally characterize a new conserved DNA-binding motif related to the SAP (SAF-A/B, Acinus, PIAS) domain in human SDE2 and establish its preference for ssDNA.
Intersubunit and intrasubunit interactions driving the MukBEF ATPaseMukBEF, a structural maintenance of chromosome-like protein complex consisting of an ATPase, MukB, and two interacting subunits, MukE and MukF, functions as the bacterial condensin. It is likely that MukBEF compacts DNA via an ATP hydrolysis–dependent DNA loop–extrusion reaction similar to that demonstrated for the yeast structural maintenance of chromosome proteins condensin and cohesin. MukB also interacts with the ParC subunit of the cellular chromosomal decatenase topoisomerase IV, an interaction that is required for proper chromosome condensation and segregation in Escherichia coli, although it suppresses the MukB ATPase activity.
Termination of DNA replication at Tus-ter barriers results in under-replication of template DNAThe complete and accurate duplication of genomic information is vital to maintain genome stability in all domains of life. In Escherichia coli, replication termination, the final stage of the duplication process, is confined to the “replication fork trap” region by multiple unidirectional fork barriers formed by the binding of Tus protein to genomic ter sites. Termination typically occurs away from Tus-ter complexes, but they become part of the fork fusion process when a delay to one replisome allows the second replisome to travel more than halfway around the chromosome.
Nonspecific DNA binding by P1 ParA determines the distribution of plasmid partition and repressor activitiesThe faithful segregation, or “partition,” of many low-copy number bacterial plasmids is driven by plasmid-encoded ATPases that are represented by the P1 plasmid ParA protein. ParA binds to the bacterial nucleoid via an ATP-dependent nonspecific DNA (nsDNA)-binding activity, which is essential for partition. ParA also has a site-specific DNA-binding activity to the par operator (parOP), which requires either ATP or ADP, and which is essential for it to act as a transcriptional repressor but is dispensable for partition.
An autoinhibitory role for the GRF zinc finger domain of DNA glycosylase NEIL3The NEIL3 DNA glycosylase maintains genome integrity during replication by excising oxidized bases from single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and unhooking interstrand cross-links (ICLs) at fork structures. In addition to its N-terminal catalytic glycosylase domain, NEIL3 contains two tandem C-terminal GRF-type zinc fingers that are absent in the other NEIL paralogs. ssDNA binding by the GRF–ZF motifs helps recruit NEIL3 to replication forks converged at an ICL, but the nature of DNA binding and the effect of the GRF–ZF domain on catalysis of base excision and ICL unhooking is unknown.
A Lynch syndrome-associated mutation at a Bergerat ATP-binding fold destabilizes the structure of the DNA mismatch repair endonuclease MutLIn humans, mutations in genes encoding homologs of the DNA mismatch repair endonuclease MutL cause a hereditary cancer that is known as Lynch syndrome. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of MutL from the thermophilic eubacterium Aquifex aeolicus (aqMutL) complexed with ATP analogs at 1.69–1.73 Å. The structures revealed significant structural similarities to those of a human MutL homolog, postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (PMS2). We introduced five Lynch syndrome-associated mutations clinically found in human PMS2 into the aqMutL NTD and investigated the protein stability, ATPase activity, and DNA-binding ability of these protein variants.
The DUF328 family member YaaA is a DNA-binding protein with a novel foldDUF328 family proteins are present in many prokaryotes; however, their molecular activities are unknown. The Escherichia coli DUF328 protein YaaA is a member of the OxyR regulon and is protective against oxidative stress. Because uncharacterized proteins involved in prokaryotic oxidative stress response are rare, we sought to learn more about the DUF328 family. Using comparative genomics, we found a robust association between the DUF328 family and genes involved in DNA recombination and the oxidative stress response.
The finger loop of the SRA domain in the E3 ligase UHRF1 is a regulator of ubiquitin targeting and is required for the maintenance of DNA methylationThe Su(var)3–9, enhancer of zeste, and trithorax (SET) and really interesting new gene (RING) finger–associated (SRA) protein domain is conserved across bacteria and eukaryota and coordinates extrahelical or “flipped” DNA bases. A functional SRA domain is required for ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) E3 ubiquitin ligase activity toward histone H3, a mechanism for recruiting the DNA methylation maintenance enzyme DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). The SRA domain supports UHRF1 oncogenic activity in colon cancer cells, highlighting that UHRF1 SRA antagonism could be a cancer therapeutic strategy.
The HIRA histone chaperone complex subunit UBN1 harbors H3/H4- and DNA-binding activityThe HIRA histone chaperone complex is composed of the proteins HIRA, UBN1, and CABIN1 and cooperates with the histone chaperone ASF1a to specifically bind and deposit H3.3/H4 into chromatin. We recently reported that the UBN1 Hpc2-related domain (HRD) specifically binds to H3.3/H4 over H3.1/H4. However, the mechanism for HIRA complex deposition of H3.3/H4 into nucleosomes remains unclear. Here, we characterize a central region of UBN1 (UBN1 middle domain) that is evolutionarily conserved and predicted to have helical secondary structure.
A stable tetramer is not the only oligomeric state that mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding proteins can adoptMitochondrial single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)–binding proteins (mtSSBs) are required for mitochondrial DNA replication and stability and are generally assumed to form homotetramers, and this species is proposed to be the one active for ssDNA binding. However, we recently reported that the mtSSB from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScRim1) forms homotetramers at high protein concentrations, whereas at low protein concentrations, it dissociates into dimers that bind ssDNA with high affinity. In this work, using a combination of analytical ultracentrifugation techniques and DNA binding experiments with fluorescently labeled DNA oligonucleotides, we tested whether the ability of ScRim1 to form dimers is unique among mtSSBs.
Ctp1 protein–DNA filaments promote DNA bridging and DNA double-strand break repairThe Ctp1 protein in Schizosaccharomyces pombe is essential for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination. Fission yeast Ctp1 and its budding yeast (Sae2) and human (CtIP) homologs control Mre11–Rad50–Nbs1 nuclease complex activity and harbor DNA-binding and -bridging activities. However, the molecular basis for Ctp1–DNA transactions remains undefined. Here, we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging of S. pombe Ctp1–DNA complexes revealing that Ctp1 polymerizes on dsDNA molecules and forms synaptic filaments that bridge two dsDNA strands.
Replication protein A dynamically regulates monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigenDNA damage tolerance permits bypass of DNA lesions encountered during S-phase and may be carried out by translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). Human TLS requires selective monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamps encircling damaged DNA. This posttranslational modification (PTM) is catalyzed by Rad6/Rad18. Recent studies revealed that replication protein A (RPA), the major ssDNA-binding protein, is involved in the regulation of PCNA monoubiquitination and interacts directly with Rad18 on chromatin and in the nucleoplasm.
Functional roles of the DNA-binding HMGB domain in the histone chaperone FACT in nucleosome reorganizationThe essential histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) promotes both nucleosome assembly and disassembly. FACT is a heterodimer of Spt16 with either SSRP1 or Pob3, differing primarily by the presence of a high-mobility group B (HMGB) DNA-binding domain furnished only by SSRP1. Yeast FACT lacks the intrinsic HMGB domain found in SSRP1-based homologs such as human FACT, but yeast FACT activity is supported by Nhp6, which is a freestanding, single HMGB-domain protein. The importance of histone binding by FACT domains has been established, but the roles of DNA-binding activity remain poorly understood.
Cohesin SA2 is a sequence-independent DNA-binding protein that recognizes DNA replication and repair intermediatesProper chromosome alignment and segregation during mitosis depend on cohesion between sister chromatids, mediated by the cohesin protein complex, which also plays crucial roles in diverse genome maintenance pathways. Current models attribute DNA binding by cohesin to entrapment of dsDNA by the cohesin ring subunits (SMC1, SMC3, and RAD21 in humans). However, the biophysical properties and activities of the fourth core cohesin subunit SA2 (STAG2) are largely unknown. Here, using single-molecule atomic force and fluorescence microscopy imaging as well as fluorescence anisotropy measurements, we established that SA2 binds to both dsDNA and ssDNA, albeit with a higher binding affinity for ssDNA.
Understanding DNA replication by the bacteriophage T4 replisomeThe T4 replisome has provided a unique opportunity to investigate the intricacies of DNA replication. We present a comprehensive review of this system focusing on the following: its 8-protein composition, their individual and synergistic activities, and assembly in vitro and in vivo into a replisome capable of coordinated leading/lagging strand DNA synthesis. We conclude with a brief comparison with other replisomes with emphasis on how coordinated DNA replication is achieved.
Functional insights into the mode of DNA and ligand binding of the TetR family regulator TylP from Streptomyces fradiaeTetracycline repressors (TetRs) modulate multidrug efflux pathways in several pathogenic bacteria. In Streptomyces, they additionally regulate secondary metabolic pathways like antibiotic production. For instance, in the antibiotic producer Streptomyces fradiae, a layered network of TetRs regulates the levels of the commercially important antibiotic tylosin, with TylP occupying the top of this cascading network. TetRs exist in two functional states, the DNA-bound and the ligand-bound form, which are allosterically regulated.
The human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein displays distinct kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA binding and exchangeThe human mitochondrial ssDNA-binding protein (mtSSB) is a homotetrameric protein, involved in mtDNA replication and maintenance. Although mtSSB is structurally similar to SSB from Escherichia coli (EcoSSB), it lacks the C-terminal disordered domain, and little is known about the biophysics of mtSSB–ssDNA interactions. Here, we characterized the kinetics and thermodynamics of mtSSB binding to ssDNA by equilibrium titrations and stopped-flow kinetic measurements. We show that the mtSSB tetramer can bind to ssDNA in two distinct binding modes: (SSB)30 and (SSB)60, defined by DNA binding site sizes of 30 and 60 nucleotides, respectively.
Human RAD52 interactions with replication protein A and the RAD51 presynaptic complexRad52 is a highly conserved protein involved in the repair of DNA damage. Human RAD52 has been shown to mediate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and is synthetic lethal with mutations in other key recombination proteins. For this study, we used single-molecule imaging and ssDNA curtains to examine the binding interactions of human RAD52 with replication protein A (RPA)-coated ssDNA, and we monitored the fate of RAD52 during assembly of the presynaptic complex. We show that RAD52 binds tightly to the RPA-ssDNA complex and imparts an inhibitory effect on RPA turnover.
A biochemical and biophysical model of G-quadruplex DNA recognition by positive coactivator of transcription 4DNA sequences that are guanine-rich have received considerable attention because of their potential to fold into a secondary, four-stranded DNA structure termed G-quadruplex (G4), which has been implicated in genomic instability and some human diseases. We have previously identified positive coactivator of transcription (PC4), a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, as a novel G4 interactor. Here, to expand on these previous observations, we biochemically and biophysically characterized the interaction between PC4 and G4DNA.
Metnase Mediates Loading of Exonuclease 1 onto Single Strand Overhang DNA for End Resection at Stalled Replication ForksStalling at DNA replication forks generates stretches of single-stranded (ss) DNA on both strands that are exposed to nucleolytic degradation, potentially compromising genome stability. One enzyme crucial for DNA replication fork repair and restart of stalled forks in human is Metnase (also known as SETMAR), a chimeric fusion protein consisting of a su(var)3–9, enhancer-of-zeste and trithorax (SET) histone methylase and transposase nuclease domain. We previously showed that Metnase possesses a unique fork cleavage activity necessary for its function in replication restart and that its SET domain is essential for recovery from hydroxyurea-induced DNA damage.
Identification of a Substrate Recognition Domain in the Replication Stress Response Protein Zinc Finger Ran-binding Domain-containing Protein 3 (ZRANB3)DNA damage and other forms of replication stress can cause replication forks to stall. Replication stress response proteins stabilize and resolve stalled forks by mechanisms that include fork remodeling to facilitate repair or bypass of damaged templates. Several enzymes including SMARCAL1, HLTF, and ZRANB3 catalyze these reactions. SMARCAL1 and HLTF utilize structurally distinct accessory domains attached to an ATPase motor domain to facilitate DNA binding and catalysis of fork remodeling reactions.
Tolerance of DNA Mismatches in Dmc1 Recombinase-mediated DNA Strand ExchangeRecombination between homologous chromosomes is required for the faithful meiotic segregation of chromosomes and leads to the generation of genetic diversity. The conserved meiosis-specific Dmc1 recombinase catalyzes homologous recombination triggered by DNA double strand breaks through the exchange of parental DNA sequences. Although providing an efficient rate of DNA strand exchange between polymorphic alleles, Dmc1 must also guard against recombination between divergent sequences. How DNA mismatches affect Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange is not understood.
The Replication Initiation Protein Sld3/Treslin Orchestrates the Assembly of the Replication Fork Helicase during S PhaseBackground: Sld3/Treslin are required for the initiation of DNA replication.Results: Sld3 interaction with ssDNA is required for GINS attachment to Mcm2–7 in yeast cells. The biochemical functions identified for Sld3 are conserved in human Treslin.Conclusion: Sld3/Treslin orchestrates the assembly of the replication fork helicase during S phase.Significance: A conserved mechanism for eukaryotic replication initiation is proposed.
YbiB from Escherichia coli, the Defining Member of the Novel TrpD2 Family of Prokaryotic DNA-binding ProteinsBackground: YbiB belongs to the uncharacterized family of TrpD2 proteins.Results: YbiB binds to DNA with high affinity. The ybiB gene is under LexA control and induced by DNA-damaging agents.Conclusion: The TrpD2 proteins are a novel family of prokaryotic DNA-binding proteins.Significance: TrpD2 proteins may be part of the LexA-controlled SOS response in bacteria.
Functional Relationship of ATP Hydrolysis, Presynaptic Filament Stability, and Homologous DNA Pairing Activity of the Human Meiotic Recombinase DMC1Background: DMC1 and RAD51 recombinases catalyze ATP-dependent DNA strand exchange via the presynaptic filament.Results: Attenuation of ATP hydrolysis correlates with stabilization of the presynaptic filament but does not enhance DMC1 activity.Conclusion: In contrast to RAD51, stabilization of the presynaptic filament via ATP hydrolysis attenuation is insufficient for enhancement of the DMC1-catalyzed recombination reaction.Significance: The results reveal an important mechanistic difference between RAD51 and DMC1.