DNA and Chromosomes
2D gel electrophoresis reveals dynamics of t-loop formation during the cell cycle and t-loop in maintenance regulated by heterochromatin stateLinear chromosome ends are capped by telomeres that have been previously reported to adopt a t-loop structure. The lack of simple methods for detecting t-loops has hindered progress in understanding the dynamics of t-loop formation and its function in protecting chromosome ends. Here, we employed a classical two-dimensional agarose gel method (2D gel method) to innovatively apply to t-loop detection. Briefly, restriction fragments of genomic DNA were separated in a 2D gel, and the telomere sequence was detected by in-gel hybridization with telomeric probe.
No off-target mutations in functional genome regions of a CRISPR/Cas9-generated monkey model of muscular dystrophyCRISPR/Cas9 is now widely used in biomedical research and has great potential for clinical applications. However, the safety and efficacy of this gene-editing technique are significant issues. Recent reports on mouse models and human cells have raised concerns that off-target mutations could hamper applying the CRISPR technology in patients. The high similarities of nonhuman primates to humans in genome content and organization, genetic diversity, physiology, and cognitive abilities have made these animals ideal experimental models for understanding human diseases and developing therapeutics.
Bypass of DNA-Protein Cross-links Conjugated to the 7-Deazaguanine Position of DNA by Translesion Synthesis PolymerasesDNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) are bulky DNA lesions that form both endogenously and following exposure to bis-electrophiles such as common antitumor agents. The structural and biological consequences of DPCs have not been fully elucidated due to the complexity of these adducts. The most common site of DPC formation in DNA following treatment with bis-electrophiles such as nitrogen mustards and cisplatin is the N7 position of guanine, but the resulting conjugates are hydrolytically labile and thus are not suitable for structural and biological studies.
Insight into the Human DNA Primase Interaction with Template-PrimerDNA replication in almost all organisms depends on the activity of DNA primase, a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that synthesizes short RNA primers of defined size for DNA polymerases. Eukaryotic and archaeal primases are heterodimers consisting of small catalytic and large accessory subunits, both of which are necessary for the activity. The mode of interaction of primase subunits with substrates during the various steps of primer synthesis that results in the counting of primer length is not clear.