DNA and Chromosomes
- In a previous study, we showed that replication through the N1-methyl-deoxyadenosine (1-MeA) adduct in human cells is mediated via three different Polι/Polθ, Polη, and Polζ-dependent pathways. Based on biochemical studies with these Pols, in the Polι/Polθ pathway, we inferred a role for Polι in the insertion of a nucleotide (nt) opposite 1-MeA and of Polθ in extension of synthesis from the inserted nt; in the Polη pathway, we inferred that this Pol alone would replicate through 1-MeA; in the Polζ pathway, however, the Pol required for inserting an nt opposite 1-MeA had remained unidentified.
- The action mechanisms revealed by the biochemical and structural analyses of replicative and translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases (Pols) are retained in their cellular roles. In this regard, DNA polymerase θ differs from other Pols in that whereas purified Polθ misincorporates an A opposite 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine (ϵdA) using an abasic-like mode, Polθ performs predominantly error-free TLS in human cells. To test the hypothesis that Polθ adopts a different mechanism for replicating through ϵdA in human cells than in the purified Pol, here we analyze the effects of mutations in the two highly conserved tyrosine residues, Tyr-2387 and Tyr-2391, in the Polθ active site.
- Cytarabine (AraC) is the mainstay for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. Although complete remission is observed in a large proportion of patients, relapse occurs in almost all the cases. The chemotherapeutic action of AraC derives from its ability to inhibit DNA synthesis by the replicative polymerases (Pols); the replicative Pols can insert AraCTP at the 3′ terminus of the nascent DNA strand, but they are blocked at extending synthesis from AraC. By extending synthesis from the 3′-terminal AraC and by replicating through AraC that becomes incorporated into DNA, translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA Pols could reduce the effectiveness of AraC in chemotherapy.
- Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is generated in vivo as the end product of lipid peroxidation and from metabolic oxidation of polyamines, and it is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The reaction of acrolein with the N2 of guanine in DNA leads to the formation of γ-hydroxy-1-N2-propano-2′ deoxyguanosine (γ-HOPdG), which can exist in DNA in a ring-closed or a ring-opened form. Here, we identified the translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases (Pols) that conduct replication through the permanently ring-opened reduced form of γ-HOPdG ((r) γ-HOPdG) and show that replication through this adduct is mediated via Rev1/Polη-, Polι/Polκ-, and Polθ-dependent pathways, respectively.
- N3-Methyladenine (3-MeA) is formed in DNA by reaction with S-adenosylmethionine, the reactive methyl donor, and by reaction with alkylating agents. 3-MeA protrudes into the DNA minor groove and strongly blocks synthesis by replicative DNA polymerases (Pols). However, the mechanisms for replicating through this lesion in human cells remain unidentified. Here we analyzed the roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) Pols in the replication of 3-MeA-damaged DNA in human cells. Because 3-MeA has a short half-life in vitro, we used the stable 3-deaza analog, 3-deaza-3-methyladenine (3-dMeA), which blocks the DNA minor groove similarly to 3-MeA.
- N1-methyl adenine (1-MeA) is formed in DNA by reaction with alkylating agents and naturally occurring methyl halides. The 1-MeA lesion impairs Watson-Crick base pairing and blocks normal DNA replication. Here we identify the translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases (Pols) required for replicating through 1-MeA in human cells and show that TLS through this lesion is mediated via three different pathways in which Pols ι and θ function in one pathway and Pols η and ζ, respectively, function in the other two pathways.