- Increasing evidences indicate that unlimited capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency, two unique properties of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), are intrinsically linked to cell cycle control. However, the precise mechanisms coordinating cell fate decisions and cell cycle regulation remain to be fully explored. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, we show that in ESCs, deficiency of components of the cell cycle regulatory MuvB complex Lin54 or Lin52, but not Lin9 or Lin37, triggers G2/M arrest, loss of pluripotency, and spontaneous differentiation.
- Acute lung injury (ALI), is a rapidly progressing heterogenous pulmonary disorder that possesses a high risk of mortality. Accumulating evidence has implicated the activation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB [NF-κB(p65)] activation in the pathological process of ALI. microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small RNA molecules, have emerged as major governors due to their post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in a wide array of pathological processes, including ALI. The dysregulation of miRNAs and NF-κB activation has been implicated in human diseases.
- The forkhead box O (FOXO) proteins are transcription factors involved in the differentiation of many cell types. Type II collagen (Col2) Cre-Foxo1-knockout and Col2-Cre-Foxo1,3,4 triple-knockout mice exhibit growth plate malformation. Moreover, recent studies have reported that in some cells, the expressions and activities of FOXOs are promoted by transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), a growth factor playing a key role in chondrogenic differentiation. Here, using a murine chondrogenic cell line (ATDC5), mouse embryos, and human mesenchymal stem cells, we report the mechanisms by which FOXOs affect chondrogenic differentiation.
- The mesoderm is one of the three germ layers produced during gastrulation from which muscle, bones, kidneys, and the cardiovascular system originate. Understanding the mechanisms that control mesoderm specification could inform many applications, including the development of regenerative medicine therapies to manage diseases affecting these tissues. Here, we used human pluripotent stem cells to investigate the role of cell cycle in mesoderm formation. To this end, using small molecules or conditional gene knockdown, we inhibited proteins controlling G1 and G2/M cell cycle phases during the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into lateral plate, cardiac, and presomitic mesoderm.
- The progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex coordinate proliferation and mitotic exit to generate the correct number of neurons and glial cells during development. However, mechanisms for regulating the mitotic cycle of cortical progenitors are not fully understood. Otx1 is one of the homeobox-containing transcription factors frequently implicated in the development of the central nervous system. Mice bearing a targeted deletion of Otx1 exhibit brain hypoplasia and a decrease in the number of cortical neurons.
- The brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test is used in both basic biological research and assisted reproduction to identify oocytes likely to be developmentally competent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism targeted by the BCB test is still unclear. To explore this question, we first confirmed that BCB-positive porcine oocytes had higher rates of meiotic maturation, better rates of cleavage and development into blastocysts, and lower death rates. Subsequent single-cell transcriptome sequencing on porcine germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes identified 155 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between BCB-negative and BCB-positive oocytes.
- Borealin, a member of the chromosomal passenger complex, plays a key regulatory role at centromeres and the central spindle during mitosis. Loss of Borealin leads to defective cell proliferation and early embryonic lethality. The in vivo functions of Borealin in mammalian postnatal development, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis remain elusive. We specifically analyzed the role of Borealin in regulating postnatal liver development, damage-induced liver regeneration, and liver carcinogenesis using mice carrying conditional Borealin alleles.
- Metazoan development demands not only precise cell fate differentiation but also accurate timing of cell division to ensure proper development. How cell divisions are temporally coordinated during development is poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis provides an excellent opportunity to study this coordination due to its invariant development and widespread division asynchronies. One of the most pronounced asynchronies is a significant delay of cell division in two endoderm progenitor cells, Ea and Ep, hereafter referred to as E2, relative to its cousins that mainly develop into mesoderm organs and tissues.
- Background: Sox2 is important for the establishment and maintenance of pluripotency.Results: This study shows that cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-mediated phosphorylation of Sox2 is important for establishing pluripotency during reprogramming but is dispensable for maintaining the pluripotency of mouse ESCs.Conclusion: Cdk-mediated Sox2 phosphorylation regulates pluripotency establishment.Significance: Our findings can explain why inactivating cell cycle inhibitors can promote reprogramming.