- Classical DNA and RNA polymerase (pol) enzymes have defined roles with their respective substrates, but several pols have been found to have multiple functions. We reported previously that purified human DNA pol η (hpol η) can incorporate both deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) and ribonucleoside triphosphates (rNTPs) and can use both DNA and RNA as substrates. X-ray crystal structures revealed that two pol η residues, Phe-18 and Tyr-92, behave as steric gates to influence sugar selectivity.
- Cytochrome P450 (P450) 17A1 catalyzes the oxidations of progesterone and pregnenolone and is the major source of androgens. The enzyme catalyzes both 17α-hydroxylation and a subsequent 17α,20-lyase reaction, and several mechanisms have been proposed for the latter step. Zebrafish P450 17A2 catalyzes only the 17α-hydroxylations. We previously reported high similarity of the crystal structures of zebrafish P450 17A1 and 17A2 and human P450 17A1. Five residues near the heme, which differed, were changed.
- Ribonucleotides are the natural analogs of deoxyribonucleotides, which can be misinserted by DNA polymerases, leading to the most abundant DNA lesions in genomes. During replication, DNA polymerases tolerate patches of ribonucleotides on the parental strands to different extents. The majority of human DNA polymerases have been reported to misinsert ribonucleotides into genomes. However, only PrimPol, DNA polymerase α, telomerase, and the mitochondrial human DNA polymerase (hpol) γ have been shown to tolerate an entire RNA strand.
- Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 21A2 is the major steroid 21-hydroxylase, converting progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OH-progesterone) to 11-deoxycortisol. More than 100 CYP21A2 variants give rise to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We previously reported a structure of WT human P450 21A2 with bound progesterone and now present a structure bound to the other substrate (17α-OH-progesterone). We found that the 17α-OH-progesterone- and progesterone-bound complex structures are highly similar, with only some minor differences in surface loop regions.
- O6-Methyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6-MeG) is a ubiquitous DNA lesion, formed not only by xenobiotic carcinogens but also by the endogenous methylating agent S-adenosylmethionine. It can introduce mutations during DNA replication, with different DNA polymerases displaying different ratios of correct or incorrect incorporation opposite this nucleoside. Of the “translesion” Y-family human DNA polymerases (hpols), hpol η is most efficient in incorporating equal numbers of correct and incorrect C and T bases.
- DNA polymerase (pol) ι is a Y-family polymerase involved in translesion synthesis, exhibiting higher catalytic activity with Mn2+ than Mg2+. The human germline R96G variant impairs both Mn2+-dependent and Mg2+-dependent activities of pol ι, whereas the Δ1–25 variant selectively enhances its Mg2+-dependent activity. We analyzed pre-steady-state kinetic and structural effects of these two metal ions and genetic variations on pol ι using pol ι core (residues 1–445) proteins. The presence of Mn2+ (0.15 mm) instead of Mg2+ (2 mm) caused a 770-fold increase in efficiency (kpol/Kd,dCTP) of pol ι for dCTP insertion opposite G, mainly due to a 450-fold decrease in Kd,dCTP.
- 1,N6-Ethenodeoxyadenosine (1,N6-ϵdA) is the major etheno lesion formed in the reaction of DNA with epoxides substituted with good leaving groups (e.g. vinyl chloride epoxide). This lesion is also formed endogenously in DNA from lipid oxidation. Recombinant human DNA polymerase η (hpol η) can replicate oligonucleotide templates containing 1,N6-ϵdA. In steady-state kinetic analysis, hpol η preferred to incorporate dATP and dGTP, compared with dTTP. Mass spectral analysis of incorporation products also showed preferred purine (A, G) incorporation and extensive −1 frameshifts, suggesting pairing of the inserted purine and slippage before further replication.
- Background: Arg-61 and Gln-38 of human DNA polymerase (hpol) η play important roles in the catalytic reaction.Results: Mutations R61M or Q38A/R61A dramatically disrupt the activity of hpol η.Conclusion: Polarized water molecules can mimic and partially compensate for the missing side chains of Arg-61 and Gln-38 in the Q38A/R61A mutant.Significance: The positioning and positive charge of Arg-61 synergistically contribute to the activity of hpol η, with additional effects of Gln-38.
- Cytochrome P450 (P450) 21A2 is the major steroid 21-hydroxylase, and deficiency of this enzyme is involved in ∼95% of cases of human congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. A structure of the bovine enzyme that we published previously (Zhao, B., Lei, L., Kagawa, N., Sundaramoorthy, M., Banerjee, S., Nagy, L. D., Guengerich, F. P., and Waterman, M. R. (2012) Three-dimensional structure of steroid 21-hydroxylase (cytochrome P450 21A2) with two substrates reveals locations of disease-associated variants.