- O6-Methyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6-MeG) is a ubiquitous DNA lesion, formed not only by xenobiotic carcinogens but also by the endogenous methylating agent S-adenosylmethionine. It can introduce mutations during DNA replication, with different DNA polymerases displaying different ratios of correct or incorrect incorporation opposite this nucleoside. Of the “translesion” Y-family human DNA polymerases (hpols), hpol η is most efficient in incorporating equal numbers of correct and incorrect C and T bases.
- DNA polymerase (pol) ι is a Y-family polymerase involved in translesion synthesis, exhibiting higher catalytic activity with Mn2+ than Mg2+. The human germline R96G variant impairs both Mn2+-dependent and Mg2+-dependent activities of pol ι, whereas the Δ1–25 variant selectively enhances its Mg2+-dependent activity. We analyzed pre-steady-state kinetic and structural effects of these two metal ions and genetic variations on pol ι using pol ι core (residues 1–445) proteins. The presence of Mn2+ (0.15 mm) instead of Mg2+ (2 mm) caused a 770-fold increase in efficiency (kpol/Kd,dCTP) of pol ι for dCTP insertion opposite G, mainly due to a 450-fold decrease in Kd,dCTP.
- 1,N6-Ethenodeoxyadenosine (1,N6-ϵdA) is the major etheno lesion formed in the reaction of DNA with epoxides substituted with good leaving groups (e.g. vinyl chloride epoxide). This lesion is also formed endogenously in DNA from lipid oxidation. Recombinant human DNA polymerase η (hpol η) can replicate oligonucleotide templates containing 1,N6-ϵdA. In steady-state kinetic analysis, hpol η preferred to incorporate dATP and dGTP, compared with dTTP. Mass spectral analysis of incorporation products also showed preferred purine (A, G) incorporation and extensive −1 frameshifts, suggesting pairing of the inserted purine and slippage before further replication.
- Cytochrome P450 (P450) 21A2 is the major steroid 21-hydroxylase, and deficiency of this enzyme is involved in ∼95% of cases of human congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. A structure of the bovine enzyme that we published previously (Zhao, B., Lei, L., Kagawa, N., Sundaramoorthy, M., Banerjee, S., Nagy, L. D., Guengerich, F. P., and Waterman, M. R. (2012) Three-dimensional structure of steroid 21-hydroxylase (cytochrome P450 21A2) with two substrates reveals locations of disease-associated variants.