- Cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO) has been reported to exhibit two distinct biological functions with a nonheme iron center. It catalyzes oxidation of both cysteamine in sulfur metabolism and N-terminal cysteine-containing proteins or peptides, such as regulator of G protein signaling 5 (RGS5). It thereby preserves oxygen homeostasis in a variety of physiological processes. However, little is known about its catalytic center and how it interacts with these two types of primary substrates in addition to O2.
- 3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAO) is an iron-dependent protein that activates O2 and inserts both oxygen atoms into 3-hydroxyanthranilate (3-HAA). An intriguing question is how HAO can rapidly bind O2, even though local O2 concentrations and diffusion rates are relatively low. Here, a close inspection of the HAO structures revealed that substrate- and inhibitor-bound structures exhibit a closed conformation with three hydrophobic loop regions moving toward the catalytic iron center, whereas the ligand-free structure is open.
- The rubredoxin motif is present in over 74,000 protein sequences and 2,000 structures, but few have known functions. A secondary, non-catalytic, rubredoxin-like iron site is conserved in 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAO), from single cellular sources but not multicellular sources. Through the population of the two metal binding sites with various metals in bacterial HAO, the structural and functional relationship of the rubredoxin-like site was investigated using kinetic, spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational approaches.