- Cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO) has been reported to exhibit two distinct biological functions with a nonheme iron center. It catalyzes oxidation of both cysteamine in sulfur metabolism and N-terminal cysteine-containing proteins or peptides, such as regulator of G protein signaling 5 (RGS5). It thereby preserves oxygen homeostasis in a variety of physiological processes. However, little is known about its catalytic center and how it interacts with these two types of primary substrates in addition to O2.
- CYP121, the cytochrome P450 enzyme in Mycobacterium tuberculosis that catalyzes a single intramolecular C–C cross-linking reaction in the biosynthesis of mycocyclosin, is crucial for the viability of this pathogen. This C–C coupling reaction represents an expansion of the activities carried out by P450 enzymes distinct from oxygen insertion. Although the traditional mechanism for P450 enzymes has been well studied, it is unclear whether CYP121 follows the general P450 mechanism or uses a different catalytic strategy for generating an iron-bound oxidant.