The Toxoplasma glucan phosphatase TgLaforin utilizes a distinct functional mechanism that can be exploited by therapeutic inhibitorsToxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that generates amylopectin granules (AGs), a polysaccharide associated with bradyzoites that define chronic T. gondii infection. AGs are postulated to act as an essential energy storage molecule that enable bradyzoite persistence, transmission, and reactivation. Importantly, reactivation can result in the life-threatening symptoms of toxoplasmosis. T. gondii encodes glucan dikinase and glucan phosphatase enzymes that are homologous to the plant and animal enzymes involved in reversible glucan phosphorylation and which are required for efficient polysaccharide degradation and utilization.
Unique properties of a Dictyostelium discoideum carbohydrate-binding module expand our understanding of CBM–ligand interactionsDeciphering how enzymes interact, modify, and recognize carbohydrates has long been a topic of interest in academic, pharmaceutical, and industrial research. Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are noncatalytic globular protein domains attached to carbohydrate-active enzymes that strengthen enzyme affinity to substrates and increase enzymatic efficiency via targeting and proximity effects. CBMs are considered auspicious for various biotechnological purposes in textile, food, and feed industries, representing valuable tools in basic science research and biomedicine.
A polysaccharide utilization locus from the gut bacterium Dysgonomonas mossii encodes functionally distinct carbohydrate esterasesThe gut microbiota plays a central role in human health by enzymatically degrading dietary fiber and concomitantly excreting short chain fatty acids that are associated with manifold health benefits. The polysaccharide xylan is abundant in dietary fiber but noncarbohydrate decorations hinder efficient cleavage by glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and need to be addressed by carbohydrate esterases (CEs). Enzymes from carbohydrate esterase families 1 and 6 (CE1 and 6) perform key roles in xylan degradation by removing feruloyl and acetate decorations, yet little is known about these enzyme families especially with regard to their diversity in activity.
Unique active-site and subsite features in the arabinogalactan-degrading GH43 exo-β-1,3-galactanase from Phanerochaete chrysosporiumArabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are plant proteoglycans with functions in growth and development. However, these functions are largely unexplored, mainly because of the complexity of the sugar moieties. These carbohydrate sequences are generally analyzed with the aid of glycoside hydrolases. The exo-β-1,3-galactanase is a glycoside hydrolase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Pc1,3Gal43A), which specifically cleaves AGPs. However, its structure is not known in relation to its mechanism bypassing side chains.
Domain architecture divergence leads to functional divergence in binding and catalytic domains of bacterial and fungal cellobiohydrolasesCellobiohydrolases directly convert crystalline cellulose into cellobiose and are of biotechnological interest to achieve efficient biomass utilization. As a result, much research in the field has focused on identifying cellobiohydrolases that are very fast. Cellobiohydrolase A from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi (CfCel6B) and cellobiohydrolase II from the fungus Trichoderma reesei (TrCel6A) have similar catalytic domains (CDs) and show similar hydrolytic activity. However, TrCel6A and CfCel6B have different cellulose-binding domains (CBDs) and linkers: TrCel6A has a glycosylated peptide linker, whereas CfCel6B's linker consists of three fibronectin type 3 domains.
A unique combination of glycoside hydrolases in Streptococcus suis specifically and sequentially acts on host-derived αGal-epitope glycansInfections by many bacterial pathogens rely on their ability to degrade host glycans by producing glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Here, we discovered a conserved multifunctional GH, SsGalNagA, containing a unique combination of two family 32 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM), a GH16 domain and a GH20 domain, in the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis 05ZYH33. Enzymatic assays revealed that the SsCBM-GH16 domain displays endo-(β1,4)-galactosidase activity specifically toward the host-derived αGal epitope Gal(α1,3)Gal(β1,4)Glc(NAc)-R, whereas the SsGH20 domain has a wide spectrum of exo-β-N-acetylhexosaminidase activities, including exo-(β1,3)-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, and employs this activity to act in tandem with SsCBM-GH16 on the αGal-epitope glycan.
A trimodular bacterial enzyme combining hydrolytic activity with oxidative glycosidic bond cleavage efficiently degrades chitinFindings from recent studies have indicated that enzymes containing more than one catalytic domain may be particularly powerful in the degradation of recalcitrant polysaccharides such as chitin and cellulose. Some known multicatalytic enzymes contain several glycoside hydrolase domains and one or more carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Here, using bioinformatics and biochemical analyses, we identified an enzyme, Jd1381 from the actinobacterium Jonesia denitrificans, that uniquely combines two different polysaccharide-degrading activities.
Processivity of dextransucrases synthesizing very-high-molar-mass dextran is mediated by sugar-binding pockets in domain VThe dextransucrase DSR-OK from the Gram-positive bacterium Oenococcus kitaharae DSM17330 produces a dextran of the highest molar mass reported to date (∼109 g/mol). In this study, we selected a recombinant form, DSR-OKΔ1, to identify molecular determinants involved in the sugar polymerization mechanism and that confer its ability to produce a very-high-molar-mass polymer. In domain V of DSR-OK, we identified seven putative sugar-binding pockets characteristic of glycoside hydrolase 70 (GH70) glucansucrases that are known to be involved in glucan binding.
The molecular basis of endolytic activity of a multidomain alginate lyase from Defluviitalea phaphyphila, a representative of a new lyase family, PL39Alginate is a polymer containing two uronic acid epimers, β-d-mannuronate (M) and α-l-guluronate (G), and is a major component of brown seaweed that is depolymerized by alginate lyases. These enzymes have diverse specificity, cleaving the chain with endo- or exotype activity and with differential selectivity for the sequence of M or G at the cleavage site. Dp0100 is a 201-kDa multimodular, broad-specificity endotype alginate lyase from the marine thermophile Defluviitalea phaphyphila, which uses brown algae as a carbon source, converting it to ethanol, and bioinformatics analysis suggested that its catalytic domain represents a new polysaccharide lyase family, PL39.
Substrate selectivity in starch polysaccharide monooxygenasesDegradation of polysaccharides is central to numerous biological and industrial processes. Starch-active polysaccharide monooxygenases (AA13 PMOs) oxidatively degrade starch and can potentially be used with industrial amylases to convert starch into a fermentable carbohydrate. The oxidative activities of the starch-active PMOs from the fungi Neurospora crassa and Myceliophthora thermophila, NcAA13 and MtAA13, respectively, on three different starch substrates are reported here. Using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometry detection, we observed that both enzymes have significantly higher oxidative activity on amylose than on amylopectin and cornstarch.
Structural and biochemical insights into the catalytic mechanisms of two insect chitin deacetylases of the carbohydrate esterase 4 familyInsect chitin deacetylases (CDAs) catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from chitin and modify this polymer during its synthesis and reorganization. CDAs are essential for insect survival and therefore represent promising targets for insecticide development. However, the structural and biochemical characteristics of insect CDAs have remained elusive. Here, we report the crystal structures of two insect CDAs from the silk moth Bombyx mori: BmCDA1, which may function in cuticle modification, and BmCDA8, which may act in modifying peritrophic membranes in the midgut.
Kinetic and molecular dynamics study of inhibition and transglycosylation in Hypocrea jecorina family 3 β-glucosidasesβ-Glucosidases enhance enzymatic biomass conversion by relieving cellobiose inhibition of endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolases. However, the susceptibility of these enzymes to inhibition and transglycosylation at high glucose or cellobiose concentrations severely limits their activity and, consequently, the overall efficiency of enzyme mixtures. We determined the impact of these two processes on the hydrolytic activity of the industrially relevant family 3 β-glucosidases from Hypocrea jecorina, HjCel3A and HjCel3B, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms through kinetic studies, binding free energy calculations, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.
Structural and thermodynamic insights into β-1,2-glucooligosaccharide capture by a solute-binding protein in Listeria innocuaβ-1,2-Glucans are bacterial carbohydrates that exist in cyclic or linear forms and play an important role in infections and symbioses involving Gram-negative bacteria. Although several β-1,2-glucan–associated enzymes have been characterized, little is known about how β-1,2-glucan and its shorter oligosaccharides (Sopns) are captured and imported into the bacterial cell. Here, we report the biochemical and structural characteristics of the Sopn-binding protein (SO-BP, Lin1841) associated with the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter from the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria innocua.
Active-site copper reduction promotes substrate binding of fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase and reduces stabilityLytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a class of copper-containing enzymes that oxidatively degrade insoluble plant polysaccharides and soluble oligosaccharides. Upon reductive activation, they cleave the substrate and promote biomass degradation by hydrolytic enzymes. In this study, we employed LPMO9C from Neurospora crassa, which is active toward cellulose and soluble β-glucans, to study the enzyme-substrate interaction and thermal stability. Binding studies showed that the reduction of the mononuclear active-site copper by ascorbic acid increased the affinity and the maximum binding capacity of LPMO for cellulose.
A Bacteroidetes locus dedicated to fungal 1,6-β-glucan degradation: Unique substrate conformation drives specificity of the key endo-1,6-β-glucanaseGlycans are major nutrients available to the human gut microbiota. The Bacteroides are generalist glycan degraders, and this function is mediated largely by polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). The genomes of several Bacteroides species contain a PUL, PUL1,6-β-glucan, that was predicted to target mixed linked plant 1,3;1,4-β-glucans. To test this hypothesis we characterized the proteins encoded by this locus in Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a member of the human gut microbiota. We show here that PUL1,6-β-glucan does not orchestrate the degradation of a plant polysaccharide but targets a fungal cell wall glycan, 1,6-β-glucan, which is a growth substrate for the bacterium.
Stability and Ligand Promiscuity of Type A Carbohydrate-binding Modules Are Illustrated by the Structure of Spirochaeta thermophila StCBM64CDeconstruction of cellulose, the most abundant plant cell wall polysaccharide, requires the cooperative activity of a large repertoire of microbial enzymes. Modular cellulases contain non-catalytic type A carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that specifically bind to the crystalline regions of cellulose, thus promoting enzyme efficacy through proximity and targeting effects. Although type A CBMs play a critical role in cellulose recycling, their mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here we produced a library of recombinant CBMs representative of the known diversity of type A modules.
Inter-domain Synergism Is Required for Efficient Feeding of Cellulose Chain into Active Site of Cellobiohydrolase Cel7AStructural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme systems. TrCel7A consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel-shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites.
Ligand-bound Structures and Site-directed Mutagenesis Identify the Acceptor and Secondary Binding Sites of Streptomyces coelicolor Maltosyltransferase GlgEGlgE is a maltosyltransferase involved in α-glucan biosynthesis in bacteria that has been genetically validated as a target for tuberculosis therapies. Crystals of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme diffract at low resolution so most structural studies have been with the very similar Streptomyces coelicolor GlgE isoform 1. Although the donor binding site for α-maltose 1-phosphate had been previously structurally defined, the acceptor site had not. Using mutagenesis, kinetics, and protein crystallography of the S.
Amino Groups of Chitosan Are Crucial for Binding to a Family 32 Carbohydrate Binding Module of a Chitosanase from Paenibacillus elgiiWe report here the role and mechanism of specificity of a family 32 carbohydrate binding module (CBM32) of a glycoside hydrolase family 8 chitosanase from Paenibacillus elgii (PeCsn). Both the activity and mode of action of PeCsn toward soluble chitosan polymers were not different with/without the CBM32 domain of P. elgii (PeCBM32). The decreased activity of PeCsn without PeCBM32 on chitosan powder suggested that PeCBM32 increases the relative concentration of enzyme on the substrate and thereby enhanced enzymatic activity.
Structural Insights into the Carbohydrate Binding Ability of an α-(1→2) Branching Sucrase from Glycoside Hydrolase Family 70The α-(1→2) branching sucrase ΔN123-GBD-CD2 is a transglucosylase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70) that catalyzes the transfer of d-glucosyl units from sucroseto dextrans or gluco-oligosaccharides via the formation of α-(1→2) glucosidic linkages. The first structures of ΔN123-GBD-CD2 in complex with d-glucose, isomaltosyl, or isomaltotriosyl residues were solved. The glucose complex revealed three glucose-binding sites in the catalytic gorge and six additional binding sites at the surface of domains B, IV, and V.
The Contribution of Non-catalytic Carbohydrate Binding Modules to the Activity of Lytic Polysaccharide MonooxygenasesLignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable industrial substrate. Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) contribute to the degradation of lignocellulose and increase the efficiency of biofuel production. LPMOs can contain non-catalytic carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), but their role in the activity of these enzymes is poorly understood. Here we explored the importance of CBMs in LPMO function. The family 2a CBMs of two monooxygenases, CfLPMO10 and TbLPMO10 from Cellulomonas fimi and Thermobispora bispora, respectively, were deleted and/or replaced with CBMs from other proteins.
Mechanistic Insights into Glucan Phosphatase Activity against Polyglucan SubstratesBackground: Glucan phosphatases are essential for glycogen and starch metabolism.Results: Comparative enzymology of glucan phosphatases defines the mechanism for specific activity versus physiological glucan substrates.Conclusion: Glucan phosphatases possess a common active site motif but unique specific activities determined by phosphatase and carbohydrate binding domains.Significance: Defining glucan dephosphorylation is essential for understanding normal plant and animal physiology and human disease.
Temperature Effects on Kinetic Parameters and Substrate Affinity of Cel7A CellobiohydrolasesBackground: Temperature concomitantly modulates kinetic and adsorption properties in heterogeneous enzyme catalysis.Results: Affinity-activity relationships for four Cel7A cellobiohydrolases are characterized over a broad temperature interval.Conclusion: Cellobiohydrolases are strongly activated by temperature at high, but not at low, substrate loads.Significance: Fundamental insight into cellulolytic mechanisms at high (industrially relevant) temperatures is gained.
Free Energy Diagram for the Heterogeneous Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Bonds in CelluloseBackground: Heterogeneous enzyme catalysis is common but has rarely been rationalized through free energy diagrams.Results: The thermodynamic properties of stable and activated cellulase complexes are reported.Conclusion: The rate of enzyme-substrate complexation is entropy-controlled, whereas dissociation is controlled by enthalpy.Significance: Supposedly, this is the first elucidation of the transition states for the complexation and dissociation steps of a cellulase.
Exploring Multimodularity in Plant Cell Wall Deconstruction: STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF Xyn10C CONTAINING THE CBM22-1–CBM22-2 TANDEMElucidating the molecular mechanisms regulating multimodularity is a challenging task. Paenibacillus barcinonensis Xyn10C is a 120-kDa modular enzyme that presents the CBM22/GH10/CBM9 architecture found in a subset of large xylanases. We report here the three-dimensional structure of the Xyn10C N-terminal region, containing the xylan-binding CBM22-1–CBM22-2 tandem (Xyn10C-XBD), which represents the first solved crystal structure of two contiguous CBM22 modules. Xyn10C-XBD is folded into two separate CBM22 modules linked by a flexible segment that endows the tandem with extraordinary plasticity.