A catalytic dyad modulates conformational change in the CO2-fixing flavoenzyme 2-ketopropyl coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase2-Ketopropyl-coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase (2-KPCC) is a member of the flavin and cysteine disulfide containing oxidoreductase family (DSOR) that catalyzes the unique reaction between atmospheric CO2 and a ketone/enolate nucleophile to generate acetoacetate. However, the mechanism of this reaction is not well understood. Here, we present evidence that 2-KPCC, in contrast to the well-characterized DSOR enzyme glutathione reductase, undergoes conformational changes during catalysis. Using a suite of biophysical techniques including limited proteolysis, differential scanning fluorimetry, and native mass spectrometry in the presence of substrates and inhibitors, we observed conformational differences between different ligand-bound 2-KPCC species within the catalytic cycle.
A C terminus–dependent conformational change is required for HDAC3 activation by nuclear receptor corepressorsHistone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) plays an important role in signal-dependent transcription and is dysregulated in diseases such as cancer. Previous studies have shown that the function of HDAC3 requires an activation step, which is mediated by the interactions of HDAC3 with the deacetylase-activation domain (DAD) of nuclear receptor corepressors and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4). However, the role of the unique HDAC3 C-terminal region in HDAC3 activation is elusive. Here multiple biochemical, structural, and functional studies show that HDAC3 activation requires a priming step mediated by the C terminus to remodel HDAC3 conformation.
Evolving the naturally compromised chorismate mutase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis to top performanceChorismate mutase (CM), an essential enzyme at the branch-point of the shikimate pathway, is required for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine in bacteria, archaea, plants, and fungi. MtCM, the CM from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has less than 1% of the catalytic efficiency of a typical natural CM and requires complex formation with 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase for high activity. To explore the full potential of MtCM for catalyzing its native reaction, we applied diverse iterative cycles of mutagenesis and selection, thereby raising kcat/Km 270-fold to 5 × 105m−1s−1, which is even higher than for the complex.
Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis defines roles for two metal ions in DNA polymerase specificity and catalysisMagnesium ions play a critical role in catalysis by many enzymes and contribute to the fidelity of DNA polymerases through a two-metal ion mechanism. However, specificity is a kinetic phenomenon and the roles of Mg2+ ions in each step in the catalysis have not been resolved. We first examined the roles of Mg2+ by kinetic analysis of single nucleotide incorporation catalyzed by HIV reverse transcriptase. We show that Mg.dNTP binding induces an enzyme conformational change at a rate that is independent of free Mg2+ concentration.
Optimized incorporation of an unnatural fluorescent amino acid affords measurement of conformational dynamics governing high-fidelity DNA replicationDNA polymerase from bacteriophage T7 undergoes large, substrate-induced conformational changes that are thought to account for high replication fidelity, but prior studies were adversely affected by mutations required to construct a Cys-lite variant needed for site-specific fluorescence labeling. Here we have optimized the direct incorporation of a fluorescent un-natural amino acid, (7-hydroxy-4-coumarin-yl)-ethylglycine, using orthogonal amber suppression machinery in Escherichia coli. MS methods verify that the unnatural amino acid is only incorporated at one position with minimal background.
Conformational dynamics during high-fidelity DNA replication and translocation defined using a DNA polymerase with a fluorescent artificial amino acidWe address the role of enzyme conformational dynamics in specificity for a high-fidelity DNA polymerase responsible for genome replication. We present the complete characterization of the conformational dynamics during the correct nucleotide incorporation forward and reverse reactions using stopped-flow and rapid-quench methods with a T7 DNA polymerase variant containing a fluorescent unnatural amino acid, (7-hydroxy-4-coumarin-yl) ethylglycine, which provides a signal for enzyme conformational changes.
A requirement for an active proton delivery network supports a compound I-mediated C–C bond cleavage in CYP51 catalysisCYP51 enzymes (sterol 14α-demethylases) are cytochromes P450 that catalyze multistep reactions. The CYP51 reaction occurs in all biological kingdoms and is essential in sterol biosynthesis. It removes the 14α-methyl group from cyclized sterol precursors by first forming an alcohol, then an aldehyde, and finally eliminating formic acid with the introduction of a Δ14–15 double bond in the sterol core. The first two steps are typical hydroxylations, mediated by an electrophilic compound I mechanism.
Structure–function analysis of silkworm sucrose hydrolase uncovers the mechanism of substrate specificity in GH13 subfamily 17 exo-α-glucosidasesThe domestic silkworm Bombyx mori expresses two sucrose-hydrolyzing enzymes, BmSUH and BmSUC1, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 17 (GH13_17) and GH32, respectively. BmSUH has little activity on maltooligosaccharides, whereas other insect GH13_17 α-glucosidases are active on sucrose and maltooligosaccharides. Little is currently known about the structural mechanisms and substrate specificity of GH13_17 enzymes. In this study, we examined the crystal structures of BmSUH without ligands; in complexes with substrates, products, and inhibitors; and complexed with its covalent intermediate at 1.60–1.85 Å resolutions.
The heme-regulatory motifs of heme oxygenase-2 contribute to the transfer of heme to the catalytic site for degradationHeme-regulatory motifs (HRMs) are present in many proteins that are involved in diverse biological functions. The C-terminal tail region of human heme oxygenase-2 (HO2) contains two HRMs whose cysteine residues form a disulfide bond; when reduced, these cysteines are available to bind Fe3+-heme. Heme binding to the HRMs occurs independently of the HO2 catalytic active site in the core of the protein, where heme binds with high affinity and is degraded to biliverdin. Here, we describe the reversible, protein-mediated transfer of heme between the HRMs and the HO2 core.
In vivo FRET analyses reveal a role of ATP hydrolysis–associated conformational changes in human P-glycoproteinP-glycoprotein (P-gp; also known as MDR1 or ABCB1) is an ATP-driven multidrug transporter that extrudes various hydrophobic toxic compounds to the extracellular space. P-gp consists of two transmembrane domains (TMDs) that form the substrate translocation pathway and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) that bind and hydrolyze ATP. At least two P-gp states are required for transport. In the inward-facing (pre-drug transport) conformation, the two NBDs are separated, and the two TMDs are open to the intracellular side; in the outward-facing (post-drug transport) conformation, the NBDs are dimerized, and the TMDs are slightly open to the extracellular side.
Cryo-EM reveals the architecture of the dimeric cytochrome P450 CYP102A1 enzyme and conformational changes required for redox partner recognitionCytochrome P450 family 102 subfamily A member 1 (CYP102A1) is a self-sufficient flavohemeprotein and a highly active bacterial enzyme capable of fatty acid hydroxylation at a >3,000 min−1 turnover rate. The CYP102A1 architecture has been postulated to be responsible for its extraordinary catalytic prowess. However, the structure of a functional full-length CYP102A1 enzyme remains to be determined. Herein, we used a cryo-EM single-particle approach, revealing that full-length CYP102A1 forms a homodimer in which both the heme and FAD domains contact each other.
Molecular basis for the function of the αβ heterodimer of human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenaseMammalian mitochondrial NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH) catalyzes the decarboxylation of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It exists as the α2βγ heterotetramer composed of the αβ and αγ heterodimers. Different from the αγ heterodimer that can be allosterically activated by CIT and ADP, the αβ heterodimer cannot be allosterically regulated by the activators; however, the molecular mechanism is unclear. We report here the crystal structures of the αβ heterodimer of human NAD-IDH with the α subunit in apo form and in Ca2+-bound, NAD-bound, and NADH-bound forms.
Interdomain communication in the phosphatidylcholine regulatory enzyme, CCTα, relies on a modular αE helixphosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT), the rate-limiting enzyme in phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis, is an amphitropic enzyme that regulates PC homeostasis. Recent work has suggested that CCTα activation by binding to a PC-deficient membrane involves conformational transitions in a helix pair (αE) that, along with a short linker of unknown structure (J segment), bridges the catalytic domains of the CCTα dimer to the membrane-binding (M) domains. In the soluble, inactive form, the αE helices are constrained into unbroken helices by contacts with two auto-inhibitory (AI) helices from domain M.
Remodeling of the interdomain allosteric linker upon membrane binding of CCTα pulls its active site close to the membrane surfaceThe rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the major membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine, is catalyzed by CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT), which is regulated by reversible membrane binding of a long amphipathic helix (domain M). The M domain communicates with the catalytic domain via a conserved ∼20-residue linker, essential for lipid activation of CCT. Previous analysis of this region (denoted as the αEC/J) using MD simulations, cross-linking, mutagenesis, and solvent accessibility suggested that membrane binding of domain M promotes remodeling of the αEC/J into a more compact structure that is required for enzyme activation.
The Bateman domain of IMP dehydrogenase is a binding target for dinucleoside polyphosphatesIMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway. Because of its involvement in the control of cell division and proliferation, IMPDH represents a therapeutic for managing several diseases, including microbial infections and cancer. IMPDH must be tightly regulated, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for its physiological regulation remain unknown. To this end, we recently reported an important role of adenine and guanine mononucleotides that bind to the regulatory Bateman domain to allosterically modulate the catalytic activity of eukaryotic IMPDHs.
Human cytochrome P450 11B2 produces aldosterone by a processive mechanism due to the lactol form of the intermediate 18-hydroxycorticosteroneHuman cytochrome P450 (P450) 11B2 catalyzes the formation of aldosterone, the major endogenous human mineralocorticoid. Aldosterone is important for the regulation of electrolyte homeostasis. Mutations and overexpression of P450 11B2 (also known as aldosterone synthase) can lead to hypertension, congestive heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy. The enzyme is therefore a target for drug development to manage these various disorders. P450 11B2 catalyzes aldosterone formation from 11-deoxycorticosterone through three distinct oxidation steps.
X-ray crystallography–based structural elucidation of enzyme-bound intermediates along the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase reaction coordinate1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXPS) uses thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) to convert pyruvate and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (d-GAP) into 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP), an essential bacterial metabolite. DXP is not utilized by humans; hence, DXPS has been an attractive antibacterial target. Here, we investigate DXPS from Deinococcus radiodurans (DrDXPS), showing that it has similar kinetic parameters Kmd-GAP and Kmpyruvate (54 ± 3 and 11 ± 1 μm, respectively) and comparable catalytic activity (kcat = 45 ± 2 min−1) with previously studied bacterial DXPS enzymes and employing it to obtain missing structural data on this enzyme family.
The N-terminal region of the ε subunit from cyanobacterial ATP synthase alone can inhibit ATPase activityATP hydrolysis activity catalyzed by chloroplast and proteobacterial ATP synthase is inhibited by their ε subunits. To clarify the function of the ε subunit from phototrophs, here we analyzed the ε subunit–mediated inhibition (ε-inhibition) of cyanobacterial F1-ATPase, a subcomplex of ATP synthase obtained from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1. We generated three C-terminal α-helix null ε-mutants; one lacked the C-terminal α-helices, and in the other two, the C-terminal conformation could be locked by a disulfide bond formed between two α-helices or an α-helix and a β-sandwich structure.
Conformational selection dominates binding of steroids to human cytochrome P450 17A1Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes are the major catalysts involved in the oxidation of steroids as well as many other compounds. Their versatility has been explained in part by flexibility of the proteins and complexity of the binding mechanisms. However, whether these proteins bind their substrates via induced fit or conformational selection is not understood. P450 17A1 has a major role in steroidogenesis, catalyzing the two-step oxidations of progesterone and pregnenolone to androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone, respectively, via 17α-hydroxy (OH) intermediates.
A reevaluation of the spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) activation mechanismSpleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a signaling node in many immune pathways and comprises two tandem Src homology (SH) 2 domains, an SH2-kinase linker, and a C-terminal tyrosine kinase domain. Two prevalent models of SYK activation exist. The “OR-gate” model contends that SYK can be fully activated by phosphorylation or binding of its SH2 domains to a dual-phosphorylated immune-receptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ppITAM). An alternative model proposes that SYK activation requires ppITAM binding and phosphorylation of the SH2-kinase linker by a SRC family kinase such as LYN proto-oncogene, SRC family tyrosine kinase (LYN).
Dynamic and structural differences between heme oxygenase-1 and -2 are due to differences in their C-terminal regionsHeme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes heme degradation, a process crucial for regulating cellular levels of this vital, but cytotoxic, cofactor. Two HO isoforms, HO1 and HO2, exhibit similar catalytic mechanisms and efficiencies. They also share catalytic core structures, including the heme-binding site. Outside their catalytic cores are two regions unique to HO2: a 20-amino acid–long N-terminal extension and a C-terminal domain containing two heme regulatory motifs (HRMs) that bind heme independently of the core.
Domain cross-talk within a bifunctional enzyme provides catalytic and allosteric functionality in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acidsBecause of their special organization, multifunctional enzymes play crucial roles in improving the performance of metabolic pathways. For example, the bacterium Prevotella nigrescens contains a distinctive bifunctional protein comprising a 3-deoxy-d-arabino heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (DAH7PS), catalyzing the first reaction of the biosynthetic pathway of aromatic amino acids, and a chorismate mutase (CM), functioning at a branch of this pathway leading to the synthesis of tyrosine and phenylalanine.
Binding of a physiological substrate causes large-scale conformational reorganization in cytochrome P450 51Sterol 14α-demethylases (CYP51s) are phylogenetically the most conserved cytochromes P450, and their three-step reaction is crucial for biosynthesis of sterols and serves as a leading target for clinical and agricultural antifungal agents. The structures of several (bacterial, protozoan, fungal, and human) CYP51 orthologs, in both the ligand-free and inhibitor-bound forms, have been determined and have revealed striking similarity at the secondary and tertiary structural levels, despite having low sequence identity.
The nature of the DNA substrate influences pre-catalytic conformational changes of DNA polymerase βDNA polymerase β (Pol β) is essential for maintaining genomic integrity. During short-patch base excision repair (BER), Pol β incorporates a nucleotide into a single-gapped DNA substrate. Pol β may also function in long-patch BER, where the DNA substrate consists of larger gap sizes or 5′-modified downstream DNA. We have recently shown that Pol β fills small gaps in DNA during microhomology-mediated end-joining as part of a process that increases genomic diversity. Our previous results with single-nucleotide gapped DNA show that Pol β undergoes two pre-catalytic conformational changes upon binding to the correct nucleotide substrate.
Structure of human ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolase 3 bound to ADP-ribose reveals a conformational switch that enables specific substrate recognitionADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolase 3 (ARH3) plays important roles in regulation of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, a reversible post-translational modification, and in maintenance of genomic integrity. ARH3 degrades poly(ADP-ribose) to protect cells from poly(ADP-ribose)–dependent cell death, reverses serine mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and hydrolyzes O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, a product of Sirtuin-catalyzed histone deacetylation. ARH3 preferentially hydrolyzes O-linkages attached to the anomeric C1″ of ADP-ribose; however, how ARH3 specifically recognizes and cleaves structurally diverse substrates remains unknown.