Identification of the molecular determinants driving the substrate specificity of fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs)Understanding enzymatic breakdown of plant biomass is crucial to develop nature-inspired biotechnological processes. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are microbial enzymes secreted by fungal saprotrophs involved in carbon recycling. LPMOs modify biomass by oxidatively cleaving polysaccharides, thereby enhancing the efficiency of glycoside hydrolases. Fungal AA9 LPMOs are active on cellulose, but some members also display activity on hemicelluloses and/or oligosaccharides. Although the active site subsites are well defined for a few model LPMOs, the molecular determinants driving broad substrate specificity are still not easily predictable.
A trimodular bacterial enzyme combining hydrolytic activity with oxidative glycosidic bond cleavage efficiently degrades chitinFindings from recent studies have indicated that enzymes containing more than one catalytic domain may be particularly powerful in the degradation of recalcitrant polysaccharides such as chitin and cellulose. Some known multicatalytic enzymes contain several glycoside hydrolase domains and one or more carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Here, using bioinformatics and biochemical analyses, we identified an enzyme, Jd1381 from the actinobacterium Jonesia denitrificans, that uniquely combines two different polysaccharide-degrading activities.
Insights into an unusual Auxiliary Activity 9 family member lacking the histidine brace motif of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenasesLytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are redox-enzymes involved in biomass degradation. All characterized LPMOs possess an active site of two highly conserved histidine residues coordinating a copper ion (the histidine brace), which are essential for LPMO activity. However, some protein sequences that belong to the AA9 LPMO family display a natural N-terminal His to Arg substitution (Arg-AA9). These are found almost entirely in the phylogenetic fungal class Agaricomycetes, associated with wood decay, but no function has been demonstrated for any Arg-AA9.
Substrate selectivity in starch polysaccharide monooxygenasesDegradation of polysaccharides is central to numerous biological and industrial processes. Starch-active polysaccharide monooxygenases (AA13 PMOs) oxidatively degrade starch and can potentially be used with industrial amylases to convert starch into a fermentable carbohydrate. The oxidative activities of the starch-active PMOs from the fungi Neurospora crassa and Myceliophthora thermophila, NcAA13 and MtAA13, respectively, on three different starch substrates are reported here. Using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometry detection, we observed that both enzymes have significantly higher oxidative activity on amylose than on amylopectin and cornstarch.
Kinetic insights into the role of the reductant in H2O2-driven degradation of chitin by a bacterial lytic polysaccharide monooxygenaseLytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are monocopper enzymes that catalyze oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides in the presence of an external electron donor (reductant). In the classical O2-driven monooxygenase reaction, the reductant is needed in stoichiometric amounts. In a recently discovered, more efficient H2O2-driven reaction, the reductant would be needed only for the initial reduction (priming) of the LPMO to its catalytically active Cu(I) form. However, the influence of the reductant on reducing the LPMO or on H2O2 production in the reaction remains undefined.
From micelles to bicelles: Effect of the membrane on particulate methane monooxygenase activityParticulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is a copper-dependent integral membrane metalloenzyme that converts methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. Studies of isolated pMMO have been hindered by loss of enzymatic activity upon its removal from the native membrane. To characterize pMMO in a membrane-like environment, we reconstituted pMMOs from Methylococcus (Mcc.) capsulatus (Bath) and Methylomicrobium (Mm.) alcaliphilum 20Z into bicelles. Reconstitution into bicelles recovers methane oxidation activity lost upon detergent solubilization and purification without substantial alterations to copper content or copper electronic structure, as observed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.
Kinetics of H2O2-driven degradation of chitin by a bacterial lytic polysaccharide monooxygenaseLytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds in recalcitrant polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, and are of interest in biotechnological utilization of these abundant biomaterials. It has recently been shown that LPMOs can use H2O2, instead of O2, as a cosubstrate. This peroxygenase-like reaction by a monocopper enzyme is unprecedented in nature and opens new avenues in chemistry and enzymology. Here, we provide the first detailed kinetic characterization of chitin degradation by the bacterial LPMO chitin-binding protein CBP21 using H2O2 as cosubstrate.
Structural and Functional Characterization of a Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase with Broad Substrate SpecificityBackground: The recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are important in enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass.Results: We describe structural and functional studies of NcLPMO9C, which cleaves both cellulose and certain hemicelluloses.Conclusion: NcLPMO9C has structural and functional features that correlate with the enzyme's catalytic capabilities.Significance: This study shows how LPMO active sites are tailored to varying functionalities and adds to a growing LPMO knowledge base.