Oxidative stress–induced autonomous activation of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II involves disulfide formation in the regulatory domainCalcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II δ (CaMKIIδ) has a pivotal role in cardiac signaling. Constitutive and deleterious CaMKII “autonomous” activation is induced by oxidative stress, and the previously reported mechanism involves oxidation of methionine residues in the regulatory domain. Here, we demonstrate that covalent oxidation leads to a disulfide bond with Cys273 in the regulatory domain causing autonomous activity. Autonomous activation was induced by treating CaMKII with diamide or histamine chloramine, two thiol-oxidizing agents.
Characterization of the endoplasmic reticulum–resident peroxidases GPx7 and GPx8 shows the higher oxidative activity of GPx7 and its linkage to oxidative protein foldingOxidative protein folding occurs primarily in the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum, enabled by a diverse network comprising more than 20 members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family and more than five PDI oxidases. Although the canonical disulfide bond formation pathway involving Ero1α and PDI has been well-studied so far, the physiological roles of the newly identified PDI oxidases, glutathione peroxidase-7 (GPx7) and -8 (GPx8), are only poorly understood. We here demonstrated that human GPx7 has much higher reactivity with H2O2 and hence greater PDI oxidation activity than human GPx8.
Non-native proteins inhibit the ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1)–protein disulfide-isomerase relay when protein folding capacity is exceededProtein maturation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) depends on a fine balance between oxidative protein folding and quality control mechanisms, which together ensure high-capacity export of properly folded proteins from the ER. Oxidative protein folding needs to be regulated to avoid hyperoxidation. The folding capacity of the ER is regulated by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The UPR is triggered by unfolded protein stress and leads to up-regulation of cellular components such as chaperones and folding catalysts.
Regulation of plant ER oxidoreductin 1 (ERO1) activity for efficient oxidative protein foldingIn the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ER oxidoreductin 1 (ERO1) catalyzes intramolecular disulfide-bond formation within its substrates in coordination with protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and related enzymes. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the ERO1–PDI system in plants are unknown. Reduction of the regulatory disulfide bonds of the ERO1 from soybean, GmERO1a, is catalyzed by enzymes in five classes of PDI family proteins. Here, using recombinant proteins, vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectroscopy, biochemical and protein refolding assays, and quantitative immunoblotting, we found that GmERO1a activity is regulated by reduction of intramolecular disulfide bonds involving Cys-121 and Cys-146, which are located in a disordered region, similarly to their locations in human ERO1.
The Scs disulfide reductase system cooperates with the metallochaperone CueP in Salmonella copper resistanceThe human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) contains a complex disulfide bond (Dsb) catalytic machinery. This machinery encompasses multiple Dsb thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that mediate oxidative protein folding and a less-characterized suppressor of copper sensitivity (scs) gene cluster, associated with increased tolerance to copper. To better understand the function of the Salmonella Scs system, here we characterized two of its key components, the membrane protein ScsB and the periplasmic protein ScsC.
Isotopic tagging of oxidized and reduced cysteines (iTORC) for detecting and quantifying sulfenic acids, disulfides, and free thiols in cellsOxidative modifications of cysteine residues are an important component in signaling pathways, enzymatic regulation, and redox homeostasis. Current direct and indirect methods detect specific modifications and a general binary population of “free” or “oxidized” cysteines, respectively. In an effort to combine both direct and indirect detection strategies, here we developed a method that we designate isotopic tagging of oxidized and reduced cysteines (iTORC). This method uses synthetic molecules for rapid isotopic coding of sulfenic acids, reduced cysteines, and disulfides in cells.
Kinetic studies reveal a key role of a redox-active glutaredoxin in the evolution of the thiol-redox metabolism of trypanosomatid parasitesTrypanosomes are flagellated protozoan parasites (kinetoplastids) that have a unique redox metabolism based on the small dithiol trypanothione (T(SH)2). Although GSH may still play a biological role in trypanosomatid parasites beyond being a building block of T(SH)2, most of its functions are replaced by T(SH)2 in these organisms. Consequently, trypanosomes have several enzymes adapted to using T(SH)2 instead of GSH, including the glutaredoxins (Grxs). However, the mechanistic basis of Grx specificity for T(SH)2 is unknown.
The reactive form of a C–S bond–cleaving, CO2-fixing flavoenzymeNADPH2-ketopropyl–coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase (2-KPCC) is a bacterial disulfide oxidoreductase (DSOR) that, uniquely in this family, catalyzes CO2 fixation. 2-KPCC differs from other DSORs by having a phenylalanine that replaces a conserved histidine, which in typical DSORs is essential for stabilizing the reduced, reactive form of the active site. Here, using site-directed mutagenesis and stopped-flow kinetics, we examined the reactive form of 2-KPCC and its single turnover reactions with a suicide substrate and CO2.
Thiol isomerase ERp57 targets and modulates the lectin pathway of complement activationER protein 57 (ERp57), a thiol isomerase secreted from vascular cells, is essential for complete thrombus formation in vivo, but other extracellular ERp57 functions remain unexplored. Here, we employed a kinetic substrate-trapping approach to identify extracellular protein substrates of ERp57 in platelet-rich plasma. MS-based identification with immunochemical confirmation combined with gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that ERp57 targets, among other substrates, components of the lectin pathway of complement activation: mannose-binding lectin, ficolin-2, ficolin-3, collectin-10, collectin-11, mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1, and mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2.
Toward a mechanistic and physiological understanding of a ferredoxin:disulfide reductase from the domains Archaea and BacteriaDisulfide reductases reduce other proteins and are critically important for cellular redox signaling and homeostasis. Methanosarcina acetivorans is a methane-producing microbe from the domain Archaea that produces a ferredoxin:disulfide reductase (FDR) for which the crystal structure has been reported, yet its biochemical mechanism and physiological substrates are unknown. FDR and the extensively characterized plant-type ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase (FTR) belong to a distinct class of disulfide reductases that contain a unique active-site [4Fe-4S] cluster.
Endoplasmic reticulum–resident protein 57 (ERp57) oxidatively inactivates human transglutaminase 2Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed, intracellular as well as extracellular protein with multiple modes of post-translational regulation, including an allosteric disulfide bond between Cys-370–Cys-371 that renders the enzyme inactive in the extracellular matrix. Although recent studies have established that extracellular TG2 is switched “on” by the redox cofactor protein thioredoxin-1 (TRX), it is unclear how TG2 is switched “off.” Here, we demonstrate that TG2 oxidation by small-molecule biological oxidants, including glutathione, cystine, and hydrogen peroxide, is unlikely to be the inactivation mechanism.
Allosteric control of human cystathionine β-synthase activity by a redox active disulfide bondCystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is the central enzyme in the trans-sulfuration pathway that converts homocysteine to cysteine. It is also one of the three major enzymes involved in the biogenesis of H2S. CBS is a complex protein with a modular three-domain architecture, the central domain of which contains a 272CXXC275 motif whose function has yet to be determined. In the present study, we demonstrated that the CXXC motif exists in oxidized and reduced states in the recombinant enzyme by mass spectroscopic analysis and a thiol labeling assay.
An in vitro fatty acylation assay reveals a mechanism for Wnt recognition by the acyltransferase PorcupineWnt proteins are a family of secreted signaling proteins that play key roles in regulating cell proliferation in both embryonic and adult tissues. Production of active Wnt depends on attachment of palmitoleate, a monounsaturated fatty acid, to a conserved serine by the acyltransferase Porcupine (PORCN). Studies of PORCN activity relied on cell-based fatty acylation and signaling assays as no direct enzyme assay had yet been developed. Here, we present the first in vitro assay that accurately recapitulates PORCN-mediated fatty acylation of a Wnt substrate.
Kinetic-based trapping by intervening sequence variants of the active sites of protein-disulfide isomerase identifies platelet protein substratesThiol isomerases such as protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) direct disulfide rearrangements required for proper folding of nascent proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Identifying PDI substrates is challenging because PDI catalyzes conformational changes that cannot be easily monitored (e.g. compared with proteolytic cleavage or amino acid phosphorylation); PDI has multiple substrates; and it can catalyze either oxidation, reduction, or isomerization of substrates. Kinetic-based substrate trapping wherein the active site motif CGHC is modified to CGHA to stabilize a PDI-substrate intermediate is effective in identifying some substrates.
Molecular Mechanisms of Allosteric Inhibition of Brain Glycogen Phosphorylase by Neurotoxic Dithiocarbamate ChemicalsDithiocarbamates (DTCs) are important industrial chemicals used extensively as pesticides and in a variety of therapeutic applications. However, they have also been associated with neurotoxic effects and in particular with the development of Parkinson-like neuropathy. Although different pathways and enzymes (such as ubiquitin ligases or the proteasome) have been identified as potential targets of DTCs in the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying their neurotoxicity remain poorly understood.
Thioredoxin-1 Selectively Activates Transglutaminase 2 in the Extracellular Matrix of the Small Intestine: IMPLICATIONS FOR CELIAC DISEASETransglutaminase 2 (TG2) catalyzes transamidation or deamidation of its substrates and is ordinarily maintained in a catalytically inactive state in the intestine and other organs. Aberrant TG2 activity is thought to play a role in celiac disease, suggesting that a better understanding of TG2 regulation could help to elucidate the mechanistic basis of this malady. Structural and biochemical analysis has led to the hypothesis that extracellular TG2 activation involves reduction of an allosteric disulfide bond by thioredoxin-1 (TRX), but cellular and in vivo evidence for this proposal is lacking.
Human ER Oxidoreductin-1α (Ero1α) Undergoes Dual Regulation through Complementary Redox Interactions with Protein-Disulfide IsomeraseIn the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum, oxidoreductin-1α (Ero1α) generates protein disulfide bonds and transfers them specifically to canonical protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) to sustain oxidative protein folding. This oxidative process is coupled to the reduction of O2 to H2O2 on the bound flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor. Because excessive thiol oxidation and H2O2 generation cause cell death, Ero1α activity must be properly regulated. In addition to the four catalytic cysteines (Cys94, Cys99, Cys104, and Cys131) that are located in the flexible active site region, the Cys208–Cys241 pair located at the base of another flexible loop is necessary for Ero1α regulation, although the mechanistic basis is not fully understood.
An Isozyme-specific Redox Switch in Human Brain Glycogen Phosphorylase Modulates Its Allosteric Activation by AMPBrain glycogen and its metabolism are increasingly recognized as major players in brain functions. Moreover, alteration of glycogen metabolism in the brain contributes to neurodegenerative processes. In the brain, both muscle and brain glycogen phosphorylase isozymes regulate glycogen mobilization. However, given their distinct regulatory features, these two isozymes could confer distinct metabolic functions of glycogen in brain. Interestingly, recent proteomics studies have identified isozyme-specific reactive cysteine residues in brain glycogen phosphorylase (bGP).
Activity-dependent Regulation of Histone Lysine Demethylase KDM1A by a Putative Thiol/Disulfide SwitchLysine demethylation of proteins such as histones is catalyzed by several classes of enzymes, including the FAD-dependent amine oxidases KDM1A/B. The KDM1 family is homologous to the mitochondrial monoamine oxidases MAO-A/B and produces hydrogen peroxide in the nucleus as a byproduct of demethylation. Here, we show KDM1A is highly thiol-reactive in vitro and in cellular models. Enzyme activity is potently and reversibly inhibited by the drug disulfiram and by hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide produced by KDM1A catalysis reduces thiol labeling and inactivates demethylase activity over time.
Role of the Conserved Disulfide Bridge in Class A CarbapenemasesSome members of the class A β-lactamase family are capable of conferring resistance to the last resort antibiotics, carbapenems. A unique structural feature of these clinically important enzymes, collectively referred to as class A carbapenemases, is a disulfide bridge between invariant Cys69 and Cys238 residues. It was proposed that this conserved disulfide bridge is responsible for their carbapenemase activity, but this has not yet been validated. Here we show that disruption of the disulfide bridge in the GES-5 carbapenemase by the C69G substitution results in only minor decreases in the conferred levels of resistance to the carbapenem imipenem and other β-lactams.
Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Disulfide and Sulfenic Acid to Form the Strongly Nucleophilic PersulfideBackground: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) modulates physiological processes in mammals.Results: The reactivity of H2S toward disulfides (RSSR) and albumin sulfenic acid (RSOH) to form persulfides (RSSH) was assessed.Conclusion: H2S is less reactive than thiols. Persulfides have enhanced nucleophilicity.Significance: This kinetic study helps rationalize the contribution of the reactions with oxidized thiol derivatives to H2S biology.
Stanniocalcin-1 Potently Inhibits the Proteolytic Activity of the Metalloproteinase Pregnancy-associated Plasma Protein-ABackground: The molecular mechanisms behind previously reported biological effects of stanniocalcin-1 are poorly understood.Results: Stanniocalcin-1 potently inhibits the proteolytic activity of the metzincin metalloproteinases PAPP-A and PAPP-A2, which promote insulin-like growth factor (IGF) activity in tissues.Conclusion: Stanniocalcin-1 is a novel proteinase inhibitor.Significance: Altered stanniocalcin-1 expression may affect IGF signaling in vivo under normal or pathological conditions.