Biosynthesis of the sactipeptide Ruminococcin C by the human microbiome: Mechanistic insights into thioether bond formation by radical SAM enzymesDespite its major importance in human health, the metabolic potential of the human gut microbiota is still poorly understood. We have recently shown that biosynthesis of Ruminococcin C (RumC), a novel ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP) produced by the commensal bacterium Ruminococcus gnavus, requires two radical SAM enzymes (RumMC1 and RumMC2) catalyzing the formation of four Cα-thioether bridges. These bridges, which are essential for RumC's antibiotic properties against human pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens, define two hairpin domains giving this sactipeptide (sulfur-to-α-carbon thioether–containing peptide) an unusual architecture among natural products.
Ruminococcin C, an anti-clostridial sactipeptide produced by a prominent member of the human microbiota Ruminococcus gnavusThe human microbiota plays a central role in human physiology. This complex ecosystem is a promising but untapped source of bioactive compounds and antibiotics that are critical for its homeostasis. However, we still have a very limited knowledge of its metabolic and biosynthetic capabilities. Here we investigated an enigmatic biosynthetic gene cluster identified previously in the human gut symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus. This gene cluster which encodes notably for peptide precursors and putative radical SAM enzymes, has been proposed to be responsible for the biosynthesis of ruminococcin C (RumC), a ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP) with potent activity against the human pathogen Clostridium perfringens.
Surprise! A hidden B12 cofactor catalyzes a radical methylationRadical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) (RS) methylases perform methylation reactions at unactivated carbon and phosphorus atoms. RS enzymes typically abstract a hydrogen from their substrates, generating a substrate-centered radical; class B RS methylases catalyze methyl transfer from SAM to cobalamin and then to a substrate-centered carbon or phosphorus radical. Radle et al. now show that Mmp10, an RS enzyme implicated in the methylation of Arg-285 in methyl coenzyme M reductase, binds a methylcobalamin cofactor required for methyl transfer from SAM to a peptide substrate.
Methanogenesis marker protein 10 (Mmp10) from Methanosarcina acetivorans is a radical S-adenosylmethionine methylase that unexpectedly requires cobalaminMethyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the last step in the biological production of methane by methanogenic archaea, as well as the first step in the anaerobic oxidation of methane to methanol by methanotrophic archaea. MCR contains a number of unique post-translational modifications in its α subunit, including thioglycine, 1-N-methylhistidine, S-methylcysteine, 5-C-(S)-methylarginine, and 2-C-(S)-methylglutamine. Recently, genes responsible for the thioglycine and methylarginine modifications have been identified in bioinformatics studies and in vivo complementation of select mutants; however, none of these reactions has been verified in vitro.
How a cofactor-free protein environment lowers the barrier to O2 reactivityMolecular oxygen (O2)-utilizing enzymes are among the most important in biology. The abundance of O2, its thermodynamic power, and the benign nature of its end products have raised interest in oxidases and oxygenases for biotechnological applications. Although most O2-dependent enzymes have an absolute requirement for an O2-activating cofactor, several classes of oxidases and oxygenases accelerate direct reactions between substrate and O2 using only the protein environment. Nogalamycin monooxygenase (NMO) from Streptomyces nogalater is a cofactor-independent enzyme that catalyzes rate-limiting electron transfer between its substrate and O2.
The catalytic mechanism of electron-bifurcating electron transfer flavoproteins (ETFs) involves an intermediary complex with NAD+Electron bifurcation plays a key role in anaerobic energy metabolism, but it is a relatively new discovery, and only limited mechanistic information is available on the diverse enzymes that employ it. Herein, we focused on the bifurcating electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum. The EtfABCX enzyme complex couples NADH oxidation to the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin and exergonic reduction of menaquinone. We developed a model for the enzyme structure by using nondenaturing MS, cross-linking, and homology modeling in which EtfA, -B, and -C each contained FAD, whereas EtfX contained two [4Fe-4S] clusters.
The A-type domain in Escherichia coli NfuA is required for regenerating the auxiliary [4Fe–4S] cluster in Escherichia coli lipoyl synthaseThe lipoyl cofactor plays an integral role in several essential biological processes. The last step in its de novo biosynthetic pathway, the attachment of two sulfur atoms at C6 and C8 of an n-octanoyllysyl chain, is catalyzed by lipoyl synthase (LipA), a member of the radical SAM superfamily. In addition to the [4Fe–4S] cluster common to all radical SAM enzymes, LipA contains a second [4Fe–4S] auxiliary cluster, which is sacrificed during catalysis to supply the requisite sulfur atoms, rendering the protein inactive for further turnovers.
A glutaredoxin domain fused to the radical-generating subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) functions as an efficient RNR reductantClass I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) consists of a catalytic subunit (NrdA) and a radical-generating subunit (NrdB) that together catalyze reduction of ribonucleotides to their corresponding deoxyribonucleotides. NrdB from the firmicute Facklamia ignava is a unique fusion protein with N-terminal add-ons of a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain followed by an ATP-binding domain, the ATP cone. Grx, usually encoded separately from the RNR operon, is a known RNR reductant. We show that the fused Grx domain functions as an efficient reductant of the F.
A catalytically versatile benzoyl-CoA reductase, key enzyme in the degradation of methyl- and halobenzoates in denitrifying bacteriaClass I benzoyl-CoA (BzCoA) reductases (BCRs) are key enzymes in the anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds. They catalyze the ATP-dependent reduction of the central BzCoA intermediate and analogues of it to conjugated cyclic 1,5-dienoyl-CoAs probably by a radical-based, Birch-like reduction mechanism. Discovered in 1995, the enzyme from the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica (BCRTar) has so far remained the only isolated and biochemically accessible BCR, mainly because BCRs are extremely labile, and their heterologous production has largely failed so far.
The role of conserved residues in Fdc decarboxylase in prenylated flavin mononucleotide oxidative maturation, cofactor isomerization, and catalysisThe UbiD family of reversible decarboxylases act on aromatic, heteroaromatic, and unsaturated aliphatic acids and utilize a prenylated flavin mononucleotide (prFMN) as cofactor, bound adjacent to a conserved Glu–Arg–Glu/Asp ionic network in the enzyme's active site. It is proposed that UbiD activation requires oxidative maturation of the cofactor, for which two distinct isomers, prFMNketimine and prFMNiminium, have been observed. It also has been suggested that only the prFMNiminium form is relevant to catalysis, which requires transient cycloaddition between substrate and cofactor.
At the confluence of ribosomally synthesized peptide modification and radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymologyRadical S-adenosylmethionine (RS) enzymology has emerged as a major biochemical strategy for the homolytic cleavage of unactivated C–H bonds. At the same time, the post-translational modification of ribosomally synthesized peptides is a rapidly expanding area of investigation. We discuss the functional cross-section of these two disciplines, highlighting the recently uncovered importance of protein–protein interactions, especially between the peptide substrate and its chaperone, which functions either as a stand-alone protein or as an N-terminal fusion to the respective RS enzyme.
Mechanistic elucidation of the mycofactocin-biosynthetic radical S-adenosylmethionine protein, MftCRibosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP) pathways produce a diverse array of natural products. A subset of these pathways depends on radical S-adenosylmethionine proteins to modify the RiPP-produced peptide. Mycofactocin biosynthesis is one example of an S-adenosylmethionine protein-dependent RiPP pathway. Recently, it has been shown that MftC catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of the C-terminal tyrosine (Tyr-30) on the mycofactocin precursor peptide MftA; however, this product has not been verified by techniques other than MS.
Insights into the catalysis of a lysine-tryptophan bond in bacterial peptides by a SPASM domain radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) peptide cyclaseRadical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes are emerging as a major superfamily of biological catalysts involved in the biosynthesis of the broad family of bioactive peptides called ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs). These enzymes have been shown to catalyze unconventional reactions, such as methyl transfer to electrophilic carbon atoms, sulfur to Cα atom thioether bonds, or carbon-carbon bond formation. Recently, a novel radical SAM enzyme catalyzing the formation of a lysine-tryptophan bond has been identified in Streptococcus thermophilus, and a reaction mechanism has been proposed.
Monooxygenase Substrates Mimic Flavin to Catalyze Cofactorless OxygenationsMembers of the antibiotic biosynthesis monooxygenase family catalyze O2-dependent oxidations and oxygenations in the absence of any metallo- or organic cofactor. How these enzymes surmount the kinetic barrier to reactions between singlet substrates and triplet O2 is unclear, but the reactions have been proposed to occur via a flavin-like mechanism, where the substrate acts in lieu of a flavin cofactor. To test this model, we monitored the uncatalyzed and enzymatic reactions of dithranol, a substrate for the nogalamycin monooxygenase (NMO) from Streptomyces nogalater.
1,2-Propanediol Dehydration in Roseburia inulinivoransGlycyl radical enzymes (GREs) represent a diverse superfamily of enzymes that utilize a radical mechanism to catalyze difficult, but often essential, chemical reactions. In this work we present the first biochemical and structural data for a GRE-type diol dehydratase from the organism Roseburia inulinivorans (RiDD). Despite high sequence (48% identity) and structural similarity to the GRE-type glycerol dehydratase from Clostridium butyricum, we demonstrate that the RiDD is in fact a diol dehydratase.
Probing the Catalytic Mechanism of Copper Amine Oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis with Halide IonsBackground: Copper amine oxidases catalyze amine oxidation using copper and a quinone cofactor.Results: Halides bind axially to the copper center, preventing the reduced cofactor from adopting an on-copper conformation.Conclusion: The cofactor undergoes large conformational changes during the catalytic reaction that enable transitions between different types of chemistry.Significance: Molecular details of cofactor movement have been unveiled based on structural and kinetic evidence.
Structure and Function of CutC Choline Lyase from Human Microbiota Bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniaeBackground: The bacterial glycyl radical enzyme CutC converts choline to trimethylamine, a metabolite involved in pathogenesis of several diseases.Results: The structures of substrate-bound and substrate-free CutC revealed significant differences.Conclusion: Choline binding to the active site triggers a conformational change from the open to closed form.Significance: A novel substrate-driven conformational mechanism and a potential target for drug design have been identified.