Kinetics of DNA strand transfer between polymerase and proofreading exonuclease active sites regulates error correction during high-fidelity replicationWe show that T7 DNA polymerase (pol) and exonuclease (exo) domains contribute to selective error correction during DNA replication by regulating bidirectional strand transfer between the two active sites. To explore the kinetic basis for selective removal of mismatches, we used a fluorescent cytosine analog (1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine) to monitor the kinetics of DNA transfer between the exo and pol sites. We globally fit stopped-flow fluorescence and base excision kinetic data and compared results obtained with ssDNA versus duplex DNA to resolve how DNA transfer governs exo specificity.
The bacteriophage lambda integrase catalytic domain can be modified to act with the regulatory domain as a recombination-competent binary recombinaseSite-specific recombinase Int mediates integration of the bacteriophage λ genome into the Escherichia coli chromosome. Integration occurs once the Int tetramer, assisted by the integration host factor IHF, forms the intasome, a higher order structure, within which Int, a heterobivalent protein, interacts with two nonhomologous DNA sequences: the core recombination sites and the accessory arm sites. The binding to these sites is mediated by the catalytic C-terminal domain (CTD) and the regulatory N-terminal domain (NTD) of Int, respectively.
Functional divergence of the sarcomeric myosin, MYH7b, supports species-specific biological rolesMyosin heavy chain 7b (MYH7b) is an evolutionarily ancient member of the sarcomeric myosin family, which typically supports striated muscle function. However, in mammals, alternative splicing prevents MYH7b protein production in cardiac and most skeletal muscles and limits expression to a subset of specialized muscles and certain nonmuscle environments. In contrast, MYH7b protein is abundant in python cardiac and skeletal muscles. Although the MYH7b expression pattern diverges in mammals versus reptiles, MYH7b shares high sequence identity across species.
Transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection is autoactivated intracellularly and requires N-glycosylation for regulationTransmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is a membrane-bound protease expressed in many human epithelial tissues, including the airway and lung. TMPRSS2-mediated cleavage of viral spike protein is a key mechanism in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 activation and host cell entry. To date, the cellular mechanisms that regulate TMPRSS2 activity and cell surface expression are not fully characterized. In this study, we examined two major post-translational events, zymogen activation and N-glycosylation, in human TMPRSS2.
Mechanism of chorismate dehydratase MqnA, the first enzyme of the futalosine pathway, proceeds via substrate-assisted catalysisMqnA, the only chorismate dehydratase known so far, catalyzes the initial step in the biosynthesis of menaquinone via the futalosine pathway. Details of the MqnA reaction mechanism remain unclear. Here, we present crystal structures of Streptomyces coelicolor MqnA and its active site mutants in complex with chorismate and the product 3-enolpyruvyl-benzoate, produced during heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Together with activity studies, our data are in line with dehydration proceeding via substrate assisted catalysis, with the enol pyruvyl group of chorismate acting as catalytic base.
Oxidative stress–induced autonomous activation of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II involves disulfide formation in the regulatory domainCalcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II δ (CaMKIIδ) has a pivotal role in cardiac signaling. Constitutive and deleterious CaMKII “autonomous” activation is induced by oxidative stress, and the previously reported mechanism involves oxidation of methionine residues in the regulatory domain. Here, we demonstrate that covalent oxidation leads to a disulfide bond with Cys273 in the regulatory domain causing autonomous activity. Autonomous activation was induced by treating CaMKII with diamide or histamine chloramine, two thiol-oxidizing agents.
Elucidation of the substrate of tRNA-modifying enzymes MnmEG leads to in vitro reconstitution of an evolutionarily conserved uridine hypermodificationThe evolutionarily conserved bacterial proteins MnmE and MnmG collectively install a carboxymethylaminomethyl (cmnm) group at the fifth position of wobble uridines of several tRNA species. While the reaction catalyzed by MnmEG is one of the central steps in the biosynthesis of the methylaminomethyl (mnm) posttranscriptional tRNA modification, details of the reaction remain elusive. Glycine is known to be the source of the carboxy methylamino moiety of cmnm, and a tetrahydrofolate (THF) analog is thought to supply the one carbon that is appended to the fifth position of U.
MqsR is a noncanonical microbial RNase toxin that is inhibited by antitoxin MqsA via steric blockage of substrate bindingThe MqsRA toxin-antitoxin system is a component of the Escherichia coli stress response. Free MqsR, a ribonuclease, cleaves mRNAs containing a 5′-GC-3′ sequence causing a global shutdown of translation and the cell to enter a state of dormancy. Despite a general understanding of MqsR function, the molecular mechanism(s) by which MqsR binds and cleaves RNA and how one or more of these activities is inhibited by its cognate antitoxin MqsA is still poorly understood. Here, we used NMR spectroscopy coupled with mRNA cleavage assays to identify the molecular mechanism of MqsR substrate recognition and the MqsR residues that are essential for its catalytic activity.
Ancestral archaea expanded the genetic code with pyrrolysineThe pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) facilitates the cotranslational installation of the 22nd amino acid pyrrolysine. Owing to its tolerance for diverse amino acid substrates, and its orthogonality in multiple organisms, PylRS has emerged as a major route to install noncanonical amino acids into proteins in living cells. Recently, a novel class of PylRS enzymes was identified in a subset of methanogenic archaea. Enzymes within this class (ΔPylSn) lack the N-terminal tRNA-binding domain that is widely conserved amongst PylRS enzymes, yet remain active and orthogonal in bacteria and eukaryotes.
The ChaC family of γ-glutamyl cyclotransferases is required for Leishmania to switch to a slow growth state and for long-term survival of the parasiteThe ChaC family of γ-glutamyl cyclotransferases is conserved throughout all Kingdoms and catalyzes the degradation of GSH. So far, the ChaC family proteins in trypanosomal parasites are missing in the literature. Here, we report two members of the ChaC family of γ-glutamyl cyclotransferases (LmChaC2a and LmChaC2b) in the unicellular pathogen Leishmania. Activity measurements suggest that these proteins catalyze degradation of GSH but no other γ-glutamyl peptides. Recombinant LmChaC2a protein shows ∼17-fold lower catalytic efficiency (kcat ∼ 0.9 s−1) than LmChaC2b (kcat ∼ 15 s−1), although they showed comparable Km values (∼1.75 mM for LmChaC2a and ∼2.0 mM for LmChaC2b) toward GSH.
Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein NS3 unfolds viral G-quadruplex RNA structuresHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver-related diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. The helicase domain of one of the nonstructural proteins of HCV, NS3 (nonstructural protein 3), is essential for viral replication; however, its specific biological role is still under investigation. Here, we set out to determine the interaction between a purified recombinant full length NS3 and synthetic guanine-rich substrates that represent the conserved G-quadruplex (G4)-forming sequences in the HCV-positive and HCV-negative strands.
The iron–sulfur cluster assembly (ISC) protein Iba57 executes a tetrahydrofolate-independent function in mitochondrial [4Fe–4S] protein maturationMitochondria harbor the bacteria-inherited iron–sulfur cluster assembly (ISC) machinery to generate [2Fe–2S; iron–sulfur (Fe–S)] and [4Fe–4S] proteins. In yeast, assembly of [4Fe–4S] proteins specifically involves the ISC proteins Isa1, Isa2, Iba57, Bol3, and Nfu1. Functional defects in their human equivalents cause the multiple mitochondrial dysfunction syndromes, severe disorders with a broad clinical spectrum. The bacterial Iba57 ancestor YgfZ was described to require tetrahydrofolate (THF) for its function in the maturation of selected [4Fe–4S] proteins.
DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A forms interaction networks with the CpG site and flanking sequence elements for efficient methylationSpecific DNA methylation at CpG and non-CpG sites is essential for chromatin regulation. The DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A interacts with target sites surrounded by variable DNA sequences with its TRD and RD loops, but the functional necessity of these interactions is unclear. We investigated CpG and non-CpG methylation in a randomized sequence context using WT DNMT3A and several DNMT3A variants containing mutations at DNA-interacting residues. Our data revealed that the flanking sequence of target sites between the −2 and up to the +8 position modulates methylation rates >100-fold.
Hedgehog acyltransferase catalyzes a random sequential reaction and utilizes multiple fatty acyl-CoA substratesSonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is a key component of embryonic development and is a driving force in several cancers. Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat), a member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase family of enzymes, catalyzes the attachment of palmitate to the N-terminal cysteine of Shh, a posttranslation modification critical for Shh signaling. The activity of Hhat has been assayed in cells and in vitro, and cryo-EM structures of Hhat have been reported, yet several unanswered questions remain regarding the enzyme’s reaction mechanism, substrate specificity, and the impact of the latter on Shh signaling.
Discovery of an ʟ-amino acid ligase implicated in Staphylococcal sulfur amino acid metabolismEnzymes involved in Staphylococcus aureus amino acid metabolism have recently gained traction as promising targets for the development of new antibiotics, however, not all aspects of this process are understood. The ATP-grasp superfamily includes enzymes that predominantly catalyze the ATP-dependent ligation of various carboxylate and amine substrates. One subset, ʟ-amino acid ligases (LALs), primarily catalyze the formation of dipeptide products in Gram-positive bacteria, however, their involvement in S. aureus amino acid metabolism has not been investigated.
Crystal structures of Schistosoma mansoni histone deacetylase 8 reveal a novel binding site for allosteric inhibitorsParasitic diseases cause significant global morbidity and mortality particularly in the poorest regions of the world. Schistosomiasis, one of the most widespread neglected tropical diseases, affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are prominent epigenetic drugs that are being investigated in the treatment of several diseases, including cancers and parasitic diseases. Schistosoma mansoni HDAC8 (SmHDAC8) is highly expressed in all life cycle stages of the parasite, and selective inhibition is required in order to avoid undesirable off-target effects in the host.
The nepenthesin insert in the Plasmodium falciparum aspartic protease plasmepsin V is necessary for enzyme functionPlasmepsin V (PM V) is a pepsin-like aspartic protease essential for growth of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Previous work has shown PM V to be an endoplasmic reticulum–resident protease that processes parasite proteins destined for export into the host cell. Depletion or inhibition of the enzyme is lethal during asexual replication within red blood cells as well as during the formation of sexual stage gametocytes. The structure of the Plasmodium vivax PM V has been characterized by X-ray crystallography, revealing a canonical pepsin fold punctuated by structural features uncommon to secretory aspartic proteases; however, the function of this unique structure is unclear.
The 5′-phosphate enhances the DNA-binding and exonuclease activities of human mitochondrial genome maintenance exonuclease 1 (MGME1)In higher eukaryotes, mitochondria play multiple roles in energy production, signaling, and biosynthesis. Mitochondria possess multiple copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which encodes 37 genes that are essential for mitochondrial and cellular function. When mtDNA is challenged by endogenous and exogenous factors, mtDNA undergoes repair, degradation, and compensatory synthesis. mtDNA degradation is an emerging pathway in mtDNA damage response and maintenance. A key factor involved is the human mitochondrial genome maintenance exonuclease 1 (MGME1).
A conserved sequence motif in the Escherichia coli soluble FAD-containing pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase is important for reaction efficiencySoluble pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenases (STHs) are flavoenzymes involved in the redox homeostasis of the essential cofactors NAD(H) and NADP(H). They catalyze the reversible transfer of reducing equivalents between the two nicotinamide cofactors. The soluble transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli (SthA) has found wide use in both in vivo and in vitro applications to steer reducing equivalents toward NADPH-requiring reactions. However, mechanistic insight into SthA function is still lacking.
Temperature-dependent hydrogen deuterium exchange shows impact of analog binding on adenosine deaminase flexibility but not embedded thermal networksThe analysis of hydrogen deuterium exchange by mass spectrometry as a function of temperature and mutation has emerged as a generic and efficient tool for the spatial resolution of protein networks that are proposed to function in the thermal activation of catalysis. In this work, we extend temperature-dependent hydrogen deuterium exchange from apo-enzyme structures to protein–ligand complexes. Using adenosine deaminase as a prototype, we compared the impacts of a substrate analog (1-deaza-adenosine) and a very tight-binding inhibitor/transition state analog (pentostatin) at single and multiple temperatures.
Myosin light chain phosphatase catalytic subunit dephosphorylates cardiac myosin via mechanisms dependent and independent of the MYPT regulatory subunitsCardiac muscle myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) is constitutively phosphorylated at ∼0.4 mol phosphate/mol RLC in normal hearts, and phosphorylation is maintained by balanced activities of dedicated cardiac muscle–specific myosin light chain kinase and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). Previously, the identity of the cardiac-MLCP was biochemically shown to be similar to the smooth muscle MLCP, which is a well-characterized trimeric protein comprising the regulatory subunit (MYPT1), catalytic subunit PP1cβ, and accessory subunit M20.
Mechanistic insights on novel small molecule allosteric activators of cGMP-dependent protein kinase PKG1αcGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) represents a compelling drug target for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PKG1 is the major effector of beneficial cGMP signaling which is involved in smooth muscle relaxation and vascular tone, inhibition of platelet aggregation and signaling that leads to cardioprotection. In this study, a novel piperidine series of activators previously identified from an ultrahigh-throughput screen were validated to directly bind partially activated PKG1α and subsequently enhance its kinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner.
Human protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) can be optimally active under nonphysiological conditionsProtein arginine methylation is involved in many biological processes and can be enhanced in cancer. In mammals, these reactions are catalyzed on multiple substrates by a family of nine protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). However, conditions that may regulate the activity of each enzyme and that may help us understand the physiological role of PRMTs have not been fully established. Previous studies had suggested unexpected effects of temperature and ionic strength on PRMT7 activity. Here we examine in detail the effects of temperature, pH, and ionic strength on recombinant human PRMT1, PRMT5, and PRMT7.
An in vitro reconstitution system to monitor iron transfer to the active site during the maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenase[NiFe]-hydrogenases (Hyds) comprise a small and a large subunit. The latter harbors the biologically unique [NiFe](CN)2CO active-site cofactor. The maturation process includes the assembly of the [Fe](CN)2CO cofactor precursor, nickel binding, endoproteolytic cleavage of the large subunit, and dimerization with the small subunit to yield active enzyme. The biosynthesis of the [Fe](CN)2CO moiety of [NiFe]-Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 occurs on the scaffold complex HybG–HypD (GD), whereas the HypC–HypD complex is specific for the assembly of Hyd-3.
The enzyme pseudooxynicotine amine oxidase from Pseudomonas putida S16 is not an oxidase, but a dehydrogenaseThe soil-dwelling bacterium Pseudomonas putida S16 can survive on nicotine as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. The enzymes nicotine oxidoreductase (NicA2) and pseudooxynicotine amine oxidase (Pnao), both members of the flavin-containing amine oxidase family, catalyze the first two steps in the nicotine catabolism pathway. Our laboratory has previously shown that, contrary to other members of its enzyme family, NicA2 is actually a dehydrogenase that uses a cytochrome c protein (CycN) as its electron acceptor.