- Persulfides (RSSH/RSS−) participate in sulfur trafficking and metabolic processes, and are proposed to mediate the signaling effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Despite their growing relevance, their chemical properties are poorly understood. Herein, we studied experimentally and computationally the formation, acidity, and nucleophilicity of glutathione persulfide (GSSH/GSS−), the derivative of the abundant cellular thiol glutathione (GSH). We characterized the kinetics and equilibrium of GSSH formation from glutathione disulfide and H2S.
- Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) participates in prokaryotic metabolism and is associated with several physiological functions in mammals. H2S reacts with oxidized thiol derivatives (i.e. disulfides and sulfenic acids) and thereby forms persulfides, which are plausible transducers of the H2S-mediated signaling effects. The one-cysteine peroxiredoxin alkyl hydroperoxide reductase E from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtAhpE–SH) reacts fast with hydroperoxides, forming a stable sulfenic acid (MtAhpE–SOH), which we chose here as a model to study the interactions between H2S and peroxiredoxins (Prx).
- Nitroalkene fatty acids are formed in vivo and exert protective and anti-inflammatory effects via reversible Michael addition to thiol-containing proteins in key signaling pathways. Nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-CLA) is preferentially formed, constitutes the most abundant nitrated fatty acid in humans, and contains two carbons that could potentially react with thiols, modulating signaling actions and levels. In this work, we examined the reactions of NO2-CLA with low molecular weight thiols (glutathione, cysteine, homocysteine, cysteinylglycine, and β-mercaptoethanol) and human serum albumin.
- Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of homocysteine with serine or with cysteine to form cystathionine and either water or hydrogen sulfide, respectively. Human CBS possesses a noncatalytic heme cofactor with cysteine and histidine as ligands, which in its oxidized state is relatively unreactive. Ferric CBS (Fe(III)-CBS) can be reduced by strong chemical and biochemical reductants to Fe(II)-CBS, which can bind carbon monoxide (CO) or nitric oxide (NO•), leading to inactive enzyme.
- Background: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) modulates physiological processes in mammals.Results: The reactivity of H2S toward disulfides (RSSR) and albumin sulfenic acid (RSOH) to form persulfides (RSSH) was assessed.Conclusion: H2S is less reactive than thiols. Persulfides have enhanced nucleophilicity.Significance: This kinetic study helps rationalize the contribution of the reactions with oxidized thiol derivatives to H2S biology.