- Cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO) has been reported to exhibit two distinct biological functions with a nonheme iron center. It catalyzes oxidation of both cysteamine in sulfur metabolism and N-terminal cysteine-containing proteins or peptides, such as regulator of G protein signaling 5 (RGS5). It thereby preserves oxygen homeostasis in a variety of physiological processes. However, little is known about its catalytic center and how it interacts with these two types of primary substrates in addition to O2.
- 3-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAO) is an iron-dependent protein that activates O2 and inserts both oxygen atoms into 3-hydroxyanthranilate (3-HAA). An intriguing question is how HAO can rapidly bind O2, even though local O2 concentrations and diffusion rates are relatively low. Here, a close inspection of the HAO structures revealed that substrate- and inhibitor-bound structures exhibit a closed conformation with three hydrophobic loop regions moving toward the catalytic iron center, whereas the ligand-free structure is open.
- The kynurenine pathway is the primary route for l-tryptophan degradation in mammals. Intermediates and side products of this pathway are involved in immune response and neurodegenerative diseases. This makes the study of enzymes, especially those from mammalian sources, of the kynurenine pathway worthwhile. Recent studies on a bacterial version of an enzyme of this pathway, 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde (2-AMS) dehydrogenase (AMSDH), have provided a detailed understanding of the catalytic mechanism and identified residues conserved for muconate semialdehyde recognition and activation.
- KatG is a bifunctional, heme-dependent enzyme in the front-line defense of numerous bacterial and fungal pathogens against H2O2-induced oxidative damage from host immune responses. Contrary to the expectation that catalase and peroxidase activities should be mutually antagonistic, peroxidatic electron donors (PxEDs) enhance KatG catalase activity. Here, we establish the mechanism of synergistic cooperation between these activities. We show that at low pH values KatG can fully convert H2O2 to O2 and H2O only if a PxED is present in the reaction mixture.
- CYP121, the cytochrome P450 enzyme in Mycobacterium tuberculosis that catalyzes a single intramolecular C–C cross-linking reaction in the biosynthesis of mycocyclosin, is crucial for the viability of this pathogen. This C–C coupling reaction represents an expansion of the activities carried out by P450 enzymes distinct from oxygen insertion. Although the traditional mechanism for P450 enzymes has been well studied, it is unclear whether CYP121 follows the general P450 mechanism or uses a different catalytic strategy for generating an iron-bound oxidant.
- Aldehyde dehydrogenase typically performs oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acid while reducing NAD(P)+ to NAD(P)H via covalent catalysis mediated by an active-site cysteine residue. One member of this superfamily, the enzyme 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (AMSDH), is a component of the kynurenine pathway, which catabolizes tryptophan in mammals and certain bacteria. AMSDH catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde to 2-aminomuconate.
- The rubredoxin motif is present in over 74,000 protein sequences and 2,000 structures, but few have known functions. A secondary, non-catalytic, rubredoxin-like iron site is conserved in 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase (HAO), from single cellular sources but not multicellular sources. Through the population of the two metal binding sites with various metals in bacterial HAO, the structural and functional relationship of the rubredoxin-like site was investigated using kinetic, spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational approaches.