- Since the advent of protein crystallography, atomic-level macromolecular structures have provided a basis to understand biological function. Enzymologists use detailed structural insights on ligand coordination, interatomic distances, and positioning of catalytic amino acids to rationalize the underlying electronic reaction mechanisms. Often the proteins in question catalyze redox reactions using metal cofactors that are explicitly intertwined with their function. In these cases, the exact nature of the coordination sphere and the oxidation state of the metal is of utmost importance.
- Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) represent the most recently classified hydrogen peroxide–dependent heme peroxidase family. Although widely distributed with more than 5000 annotated genes and hailed for their biotechnological potential, detailed biochemical characterization of their reaction mechanism remains limited. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structures of WT B-class DyP from the pathogenic bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpDyP) (1.6 Å) and the variants D143A (1.3 Å), R232A (1.9 Å), and D143A/R232A (1.1 Å).
- Protein carbamylation by cyanate is a post-translational modification associated with several (patho)physiological conditions, including cardiovascular disorders. However, the biochemical pathways leading to protein carbamylation are incompletely characterized. This work demonstrates that the heme protein myeloperoxidase (MPO), which is secreted at high concentrations at inflammatory sites from stimulated neutrophils and monocytes, is able to catalyze the two-electron oxidation of cyanide to cyanate and promote the carbamylation of taurine, lysine, and low-density lipoproteins.
- Oxidation of halides and thiocyanate by heme peroxidases to antimicrobial oxidants is an important cornerstone in the innate immune system of mammals. Interestingly, phylogenetic and physiological studies suggest that homologous peroxidases are already present in mycetozoan eukaryotes such as Dictyostelium discoideum. This social amoeba kills bacteria via phagocytosis for nutrient acquisition at its single-cell stage and for antibacterial defense at its multicellular stages. Here, we demonstrate that peroxidase A from D.
- Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is synthesized by neutrophil and monocyte precursor cells and contributes to host defense by mediating microbial killing. Although several steps in MPO biosynthesis and processing have been elucidated, many questions remained, such as the structure-function relationship of monomeric unprocessed proMPO versus the mature dimeric MPO and the functional role of the propeptide. Here we have presented the first and high resolution (at 1.25 Å) crystal structure of proMPO and its solution structure obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering.
- Human peroxidasin 1 is a homotrimeric multidomain peroxidase that is secreted to the extracellular matrix. The heme enzyme was shown to release hypobromous acid that mediates the formation of specific covalent sulfilimine bonds to reinforce collagen IV in basement membranes. Maturation by proteolytic cleavage is known to activate the enzyme. Here, we present the first multimixing stopped-flow study on a fully functional truncated variant of human peroxidasin 1 comprising four immunoglobulin-like domains and the catalytically active peroxidase domain.
- Background: Human peroxidasin 1 (hsPxd01) mediates the formation of sulfilimine cross-links within the collagen IV scaffold of basement membranes.Results: Overexpressed hsPxd01 contains covalently linked heme catalytically active for production of hypobromous acid.Conclusion: hsPxd01 has peroxidase-like active site structure but restricted substrate accessibility.Significance: Architecture of hsPxd01 facilitates product release and its interactions with the physiological substrate collagen IV.