- 2-Ketopropyl-coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase (2-KPCC) is a member of the flavin and cysteine disulfide containing oxidoreductase family (DSOR) that catalyzes the unique reaction between atmospheric CO2 and a ketone/enolate nucleophile to generate acetoacetate. However, the mechanism of this reaction is not well understood. Here, we present evidence that 2-KPCC, in contrast to the well-characterized DSOR enzyme glutathione reductase, undergoes conformational changes during catalysis. Using a suite of biophysical techniques including limited proteolysis, differential scanning fluorimetry, and native mass spectrometry in the presence of substrates and inhibitors, we observed conformational differences between different ligand-bound 2-KPCC species within the catalytic cycle.
- The 2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase (2-KPCC) enzyme is the only member of the disulfide oxidoreductase (DSOR) family of enzymes, which are important for reductively cleaving S–S bonds, to have carboxylation activity. 2-KPCC catalyzes the conversion of 2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M to acetoacetate, which is used as a carbon source, in a controlled reaction to exclude protons. A conserved His–Glu motif present in DSORs is key in the protonation step; however, in 2-KPCC, the dyad is substituted by Phe–His.
- Electron bifurcation plays a key role in anaerobic energy metabolism, but it is a relatively new discovery, and only limited mechanistic information is available on the diverse enzymes that employ it. Herein, we focused on the bifurcating electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum. The EtfABCX enzyme complex couples NADH oxidation to the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin and exergonic reduction of menaquinone. We developed a model for the enzyme structure by using nondenaturing MS, cross-linking, and homology modeling in which EtfA, -B, and -C each contained FAD, whereas EtfX contained two [4Fe-4S] clusters.
- NADPH2-ketopropyl–coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase (2-KPCC) is a bacterial disulfide oxidoreductase (DSOR) that, uniquely in this family, catalyzes CO2 fixation. 2-KPCC differs from other DSORs by having a phenylalanine that replaces a conserved histidine, which in typical DSORs is essential for stabilizing the reduced, reactive form of the active site. Here, using site-directed mutagenesis and stopped-flow kinetics, we examined the reactive form of 2-KPCC and its single turnover reactions with a suicide substrate and CO2.
- Nitrogenase is the enzyme that reduces atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) in biological systems. It catalyzes a series of single-electron transfers from the donor iron protein (Fe protein) to the molybdenum–iron protein (MoFe protein) that contains the iron–molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) sites where N2 is reduced to NH3. The P-cluster in the MoFe protein functions in nitrogenase catalysis as an intermediate electron carrier between the external electron donor, the Fe protein, and the FeMo-co sites of the MoFe protein.
- For nearly 30 years, coenzyme M (CoM) was assumed to be present solely in methanogenic archaea. In the late 1990s, CoM was reported to play a role in bacterial propene metabolism, but no biosynthetic pathway for CoM has yet been identified in bacteria. Here, using bioinformatics and proteomic approaches in the metabolically versatile bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus Py2, we identified four putative CoM biosynthetic enzymes encoded by the xcbB1, C1, D1, and E1 genes. Only XcbB1 was homologous to a known CoM biosynthetic enzyme (ComA), indicating that CoM biosynthesis in bacteria involves enzymes different from those in archaea.
- A newly recognized third fundamental mechanism of energy conservation in biology, electron bifurcation, uses free energy from exergonic redox reactions to drive endergonic redox reactions. Flavin-based electron bifurcation furnishes low-potential electrons to demanding chemical reactions, such as reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia. We employed the heterodimeric flavoenzyme FixAB from the diazotrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris to elucidate unique properties that underpin flavin-based electron bifurcation.
- Electron bifurcation has recently gained acceptance as the third mechanism of energy conservation in which energy is conserved through the coupling of exergonic and endergonic reactions. A structure-based mechanism of bifurcation has been elucidated recently for the flavin-based enzyme NADH-dependent ferredoxin NADP+ oxidoreductase I (NfnI) from the hyperthermophillic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. NfnI is thought to be involved in maintaining the cellular redox balance, producing NADPH for biosynthesis by recycling the two other primary redox carriers, NADH and ferredoxin.