- The MqsRA toxin-antitoxin system is a component of the Escherichia coli stress response. Free MqsR, a ribonuclease, cleaves mRNAs containing a 5′-GC-3′ sequence causing a global shutdown of translation and the cell to enter a state of dormancy. Despite a general understanding of MqsR function, the molecular mechanism(s) by which MqsR binds and cleaves RNA and how one or more of these activities is inhibited by its cognate antitoxin MqsA is still poorly understood. Here, we used NMR spectroscopy coupled with mRNA cleavage assays to identify the molecular mechanism of MqsR substrate recognition and the MqsR residues that are essential for its catalytic activity.
- Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is the canonical enzyme for investigating how distinct structural elements influence enzyme catalytic activity. Although it is recognized that dynamics are essential for PTP1B function, the data collected thus far have not resolved whether distinct elements are dynamically coordinated or, alternatively, whether they fulfill their respective functions independently. To answer this question, we performed a comprehensive 13C-methyl relaxation study of Ile, Leu, and Val (ILV) residues of PTP1B, which, because of its substantially increased sensitivity, provides a comprehensive understanding of the influence of protein motions on different time scales for enzyme function.
- The final steps of cell-wall biosynthesis in bacteria are carried out by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), whose transpeptidase domains form the cross-links in peptidoglycan chains that define the bacterial cell wall. These enzymes are the targets of β-lactam antibiotics, as their inhibition reduces the structural integrity of the cell wall. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a rapidly growing concern; however, the structural underpinnings of PBP-derived antibiotic resistance are poorly understood.
- The integrated stress response (ISR) is regulated by kinases that phosphorylate the α subunit of translation initiation factor 2 and phosphatases that dephosphorylate it. Genetic and biochemical observations indicate that the eIF2αP-directed holophosphatase, a therapeutic target in diseases of protein misfolding, is comprised of a regulatory subunit, PPP1R15, and a catalytic subunit, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). In mammals, there are two isoforms of the regulatory subunit, PPP1R15A and PPP1R15B, with overlapping roles in the essential function of eIF2αP dephosphorylation.
- The kinase interaction motif (KIM) family of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) includes hematopoietic protein-tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP), striatal-enriched protein-tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), and protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type R (PTPRR). KIM-PTPs bind and dephosphorylate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and thereby critically modulate cell proliferation and differentiation. PTP activity can readily be diminished by reactive oxygen species (ROS), e.g. H2O2, which oxidize the catalytically indispensable active-site cysteine.