- Insulin mRNA expression in pancreatic islet β-cells is up-regulated by extracellular glucose concentration, but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. MafA is a transcriptional activator specifically enriched in β-cells that binds to the insulin gene promoter. Its expression is transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally regulated by glucose. Moreover, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, is inhibited by high glucose, and this inhibition is essential for the up-regulation of insulin gene expression and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS).
- miR-21, as an oncogene that overexpresses in most human tumors, is involved in radioresistance; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that miR-21-mediated radioresistance occurs through promoting repair of DNA double strand breaks, which includes facilitating both non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR). The miR-21-promoted NHEJ occurs through targeting GSK3B (a novel target of miR-21), which affects the CRY2/PP5 pathway and in turn increases DNA-PKcs activity.
- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) are key regulators of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation toward adipocytes and osteoblasts, respectively. Post-translational modifications of these factors determine their activities. Dephosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser-112 is required for its adipocytic activity, whereas phosphorylation of RUNX2 at serine 319 (Ser-319) promotes its osteoblastic activity. Here we show that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) reciprocally regulates each receptor by targeting each serine.
- Drug resistance is one of the main causes of colon cancer recurrence. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and availability of therapeutic options remains limited. Here we show that expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) is positively correlated with drug resistance of colon cancer cells and induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment in drug-resistant but not drug-sensitive cells. Knockdown of PDK4 expression sensitizes colon cancer cells to 5-FU or oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in vitro and increases the effectiveness of 5-FU in the inhibition of tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model in vivo.
- Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients harbor germ line mutations in the TP53 gene and are at increased risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Recently, elevated levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, were found in the breast tissue of LFS patients. Although p53 down-regulates aromatase expression, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the present study, we found that LFS stromal cells expressed higher levels of Hsp90 ATPase activity and aromatase compared with wild-type stromal cells.
- Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-containing compounds are well established environmental carcinogens. Most mechanistic investigations of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis focus on oxidative stress and various cellular responses, leading to malignant cell transformation or the first stage of metal-induced carcinogenesis. The development of malignantly transformed cells into tumors that require angiogenesis is the second stage. This study focuses on the second stage, in particular, the role of EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells.
- Background: CD36 plays a role in lipid uptake, foam cell formation, and atherogenesis.Results: 15(S)-HETE induces CD36 expression and foam cell formation by triggering p300-mediated STAT1 acetylation and its interaction with PPARγ.Conclusion: STAT1 and PPARγ interact with each other in CD36 expression and foam cell formation.Significance: 15(S)-HETE appears to play an important role in foam cell formation, a critical event in atherogenesis.