- Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). As the sole methyl-donor for methylation of DNA, RNA, and proteins, SAM levels affect gene expression by changing methylation patterns. Expression of MAT2A, the catalytic subunit of isozyme MAT2, is positively correlated with proliferation of cancer cells; however, how MAT2A promotes cell proliferation is largely unknown. Given that the protein synthesis is induced in proliferating cells and that RNA and protein components of translation machinery are methylated, we tested here whether MAT2 and SAM are coupled with protein synthesis.
- NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) is a key transcriptional activator that mediates the inducible expression of antioxidant genes. NRF2 is normally ubiquitinated by KEAP1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) and subsequently degraded by proteasomes. Inactivation of KEAP1 by oxidative stress or electrophilic chemicals allows NRF2 to activate transcription through binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs) and recruiting histone acetyltransferase CBP (CREB-binding protein). Whereas KEAP1-dependent regulation is a major determinant of NRF2 activity, NRF2-mediated transcriptional activation varies from context to context, suggesting that other intracellular signaling cascades may impact NRF2 function.
- B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) encoded by Prdm1 is a master regulator of plasma cell differentiation. The transcription factor Bach2 represses Blimp-1 expression in B cells to stall terminal differentiation, by which it supports reactions such as class switch recombination of the antibody genes. We found that histones H3 and H4 around the Prdm1 intron 5 Maf recognition element were acetylated at higher levels in X63/0 plasma cells expressing Blimp-1 than in BAL17 mature B cells lacking its expression.
- The transcription factor Bach2 regulates the immune system at multiple points, including class switch recombination (CSR) in activated B cells and the function of T cells in part by restricting their terminal differentiation. However, the regulation of Bach2 expression and its activity in the immune cells are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that Bach2 mRNA expression decreased in Pten-deficient primary B cells. Bach2 was phosphorylated in primary B cells, which was increased upon the activation of the B cell receptor by an anti-immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody or CD40 ligand.