- Vitamin D metabolism centers on kidney regulation of Cyp27b1 by mineralotropic hormones, including induction by parathyroid hormone (PTH), suppression by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), and reciprocal regulations for Cyp24a1. This coordinated genomic regulation results in production of endocrine 1,25(OH)2D3, which, together with PTH and FGF23, controls mineral homeostasis. However, how these events are coordinated is unclear. Here, using in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing in mouse kidney, we demonstrate that PTH activation rapidly induces increased recruitment of phosphorylated (p-133) CREB (pCREB) and its coactivators, CBP (CREB-binding protein) and CRTC2 (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2), to previously defined kidney-specific M1 and M21 enhancers near the Cyp27b1 gene.
- Cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1 (CYP27B1) and CYP24A1 function to maintain physiological levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in the kidney. Renal Cyp27b1 and Cyp24a1 expression levels are transcriptionally regulated in a highly reciprocal manner by parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and 1,25(OH)2D3. In contrast, Cyp24a1 regulation in nonrenal target cells (NRTCs) is limited to induction by 1,25(OH)2D3. Herein, we used ChIP-Seq analyses of mouse tissues to identify regulatory regions within the Cyp24a1 gene locus.
- The vitamin D endocrine system regulates mineral homeostasis through its activities in the intestine, kidney, and bone. Terminal activation of vitamin D3 to its hormonal form, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), occurs in the kidney via the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP27B1. Despite its importance in vitamin D metabolism, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the gene for this enzyme, Cyp27b1, are unknown. Here, we identified a kidney-specific control module governed by a renal cell-specific chromatin structure located distal to Cyp27b1 that mediates unique basal and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-, and 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated regulation of Cyp27b1 expression.