Cryo-EM reveals conformational flexibility in apo DNA polymerase ζThe translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ function together in DNA lesion bypass during DNA replication, acting as nucleotide inserter and extender polymerases, respectively. While the structural characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Polζ in its DNA-bound state has illuminated how this enzyme synthesizes DNA, a mechanistic understanding of TLS also requires probing conformational changes associated with DNA- and Rev1 binding. Here, we used single-particle cryo-electron microscopy to determine the structure of the apo Polζ holoenzyme.
Role of the trigger loop in translesion RNA synthesis by bacterial RNA polymeraseDNA lesions can severely compromise transcription and block RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase (RNAP), leading to subsequent recruitment of DNA repair factors to the stalled transcription complex. Recent structural studies have uncovered molecular interactions of several DNA lesions within the transcription elongation complex. However, little is known about the role of key elements of the RNAP active site in translesion transcription. Here, using recombinantly expressed proteins, in vitro transcription, kinetic analyses, and in vivo cell viability assays, we report that point amino acid substitutions in the trigger loop, a flexible element of the active site involved in nucleotide addition, can stimulate translesion RNA synthesis by Escherichia coli RNAP without altering the fidelity of nucleotide incorporation.
An in vivo study of the impact of deficiency in the DNA repair proteins PAXX and XLF on development and maturation of the hemolymphoid systemRepair of DNA double-strand breaks by the nonhomologous end joining pathway is central for proper development of the adaptive immune system. This repair pathway involves eight factors, including XRCC4-like factor (XLF)/Cernunnos and the paralog of XRCC4 and XLF, PAXX nonhomologous end joining factor (PAXX). Xlf−/− and Paxx−/− mice are viable and exhibit only a mild immunophenotype. However, mice lacking both PAXX and XLF are embryonic lethal because postmitotic neurons undergo massive apoptosis in embryos.
Molecular basis for the faithful replication of 5-methylcytosine and its oxidized forms by DNA polymerase βDNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression in mammals. One method of methylation removal is through ten–eleven translocation–catalyzed oxidation and the base excision repair pathway. The iterative oxidation of 5-methylcytosine catalyzed by ten–eleven translocation enzymes produces three oxidized forms of cytosine: 5-hydroxmethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxycytosine. The effect these modifications have on the efficiency and fidelity of the base excision repair pathway during the repair of opposing base damage, and in particular DNA polymerization, remains to be elucidated.
Stat3 and CCAAT enhancer–binding protein β (C/ebpβ) activate Fanconi C gene transcription during emergency granulopoiesisInterferon consensus sequence–binding protein (Icsbp) is required for terminating emergency granulopoiesis, an episodic event responsible for granulocyte production in response to infections and a key component of the innate immune response. Icsbp inhibits the expression of Stat3 and C/ebpβ, transcription factors essential for initiating and sustaining granulopoiesis, and activates transcription of Fanconi C (FANCC), a DNA repair protein. In prior studies, we noted accelerated bone marrow failure in Fancc−/− mice undergoing multiple episodes of emergency granulopoiesis, associated with apoptosis of bone marrow cells with unrepaired DNA damage.
RNA polymerase II is released from the DNA template during transcription-coupled repair in mammalian cellsIn mammalian cells, bulky DNA adducts located in the template but not the coding strand of genes block elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). The blocked RNAPII targets these transcription-blocking adducts to undergo more rapid excision repair than adducts located elsewhere in the genome. In excision repair, coupled incisions are made in the damaged DNA strand on both sides of the adduct. The fate of RNAPII in the course of this transcription-coupled repair (TCR) pathway is unclear. To address the fate of RNAPII, we used methods that control transcription to initiate a discrete “wave” of elongation complexes.
Cross-talk between the H3K36me3 and H4K16ac histone epigenetic marks in DNA double-strand break repairPost-translational modifications of histone proteins regulate numerous cellular processes. Among these modifications, trimethylation of lysine 36 in histone H3 (H3K36me3) and acetylation of lysine 16 in histone H4 (H4K16ac) have important roles in transcriptional regulation and DNA damage response signaling. However, whether these two epigenetic histone marks are mechanistically linked remains unclear. Here we discovered a new pathway through which H3K36me3 stimulates H4K16ac upon DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction in human cells.
Cockayne syndrome B protein regulates recruitment of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase to sites of DNA damageElongin A performs dual functions as the transcriptionally active subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation factor Elongin and as the substrate recognition subunit of a Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitylates Pol II in response to DNA damage. Assembly of the Elongin A ubiquitin ligase and its recruitment to sites of DNA damage is a tightly regulated process induced by DNA-damaging agents and α-amanitin, a drug that induces Pol II stalling. In this study, we demonstrate (i) that Elongin A and the ubiquitin ligase subunit CUL5 associate in cells with the Cockayne syndrome B (CSB) protein and (ii) that this interaction is also induced by DNA-damaging agents and α-amanitin.
miR-21-mediated Radioresistance Occurs via Promoting Repair of DNA Double Strand BreaksmiR-21, as an oncogene that overexpresses in most human tumors, is involved in radioresistance; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that miR-21-mediated radioresistance occurs through promoting repair of DNA double strand breaks, which includes facilitating both non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR). The miR-21-promoted NHEJ occurs through targeting GSK3B (a novel target of miR-21), which affects the CRY2/PP5 pathway and in turn increases DNA-PKcs activity.
Transcription Factors and DNA Repair Enzymes Compete for Damaged Promoter SitesTranscriptional regulation is a tightly regulated, vital process. The transcription factor cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) controls ∼25% of the mammalian transcriptome by binding the CREB1 binding site consensus sequence (CRE) sequence (TGACGTCA). DNA lesions within CRE modulate CREB1 binding negatively and positively. Because appropriate DNA lesions also interact with base excision repair proteins, we investigated whether CREB1 and repair glycosylases compete with each other.