Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is important for oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) hemocyte adaptation to hypoxic conditionsCrustaceans have an open vascular system in which hemocytes freely circulate in hemolymph. Hemocytes are rich in hemocyanin, a specific oxygen-transport protein in crustaceans; therefore, understanding the response of hemocytes to hypoxia is crucial. Although hemocytes take up glucose during hypoxia, the molecular mechanism of glucose uptake in crustaceans remains unclear. Herein, we identified two highly conserved glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT2) in Macrobrachium nipponense (oriental river prawn) and analyzed their tissue-specific expression patterns.
Rate of transcription elongation and sequence-specific pausing by RNA polymerase I directly influence rRNA processingOne of the first steps in ribosome biogenesis is transcription of the ribosomal DNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Processing of the resultant rRNA begins cotranscriptionally, and perturbation of Pol I transcription elongation results in defective rRNA processing. Mechanistic insight regarding the link between transcription elongation and ribosome assembly is lacking because of limited in vivo methods to assay Pol I transcription. Here, we use native elongating transcript sequencing (NET-Seq) with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing a point mutation in Pol I, rpa190-F1205H, which results in impaired rRNA processing and ribosome assembly.
SOX9 and TCF transcription factors associate to mediate Wnt/β-catenin target gene activation in colorectal cancerActivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates gene expression by promoting the formation of a β-catenin–T-cell factor (TCF) complex on target enhancers. In addition to TCFs, other transcription factors interact with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway at different levels to produce tissue-specific patterns of Wnt target gene expression. The transcription factor SOX9 potently represses many Wnt target genes by downregulating β-catenin protein levels. Here, we find using colony formation and cell growth assays that SOX9 surprisingly promotes the proliferation of Wnt-driven colorectal cancer (CRC) cells.
Biphasic transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of MYB by androgen signaling mediates its growth control in prostate cancerMYB, a proto-oncogene, is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and promotes its growth, aggressiveness, and resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy. Here, we examined the effect of androgen signaling on MYB expression and delineated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Paralleling a dichotomous effect on growth, low-dose androgen induced MYB expression at both transcript and protein levels, whereas it was suppressed in high-dose androgen-treated PCa cells. Interestingly, treatment with both low- and high-dose androgen transcriptionally upregulated MYB by increasing the binding of androgen receptor to the MYB promoter.
Identification of an E3 ligase that targets the catalytic subunit of RNA Polymerase I upon transcription stressRNA Polymerase I (Pol I) synthesizes rRNA, which is the first and rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis. Factors governing the stability of the polymerase complex are not known. Previous studies characterizing Pol I inhibitor BMH-21 revealed a transcriptional stress-dependent pathway for degradation of the largest subunit of Pol I, RPA194. To identify the E3 ligase(s) involved, we conducted a cell-based RNAi screen for ubiquitin pathway genes. We establish Skp–Cullin–F-box protein complex F-box protein FBXL14 as an E3 ligase for RPA194.
MITF is a novel transcriptional regulator of the calcium sensor STIM1: Significance in physiological melanogenesisStromal Interaction Molecule1 (STIM1) is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane-localized calcium (Ca2+) sensor that plays a critical role in the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) pathway. STIM1 regulates a variety of physiological processes and contributes to a plethora of pathophysiological conditions. Several disease states and enhanced biological phenomena are associated with increased STIM1 levels and activity. However, molecular mechanisms driving STIM1 expression remain largely unappreciated. We recently reported that STIM1 expression augments during pigmentation.
Methyltransferase SMYD3 impairs hypoxia tolerance by augmenting hypoxia signaling independent of its enzymatic activityHypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α, a main transcriptional regulator of the cellular response to hypoxia, also plays important roles in oxygen homeostasis of aerobic organisms, which is regulated by multiple mechanisms. However, the full cellular response to hypoxia has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that expression of SMYD3, a methyltransferase, augments hypoxia signaling independent of its enzymatic activity. We demonstrated SMYD3 binds to and stabilizes HIF1α via co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot assays, leading to the enhancement of HIF1α transcriptional activity under hypoxia conditions.
m6A RNA methylation regulates the transcription factors JUN and JUNB in TGF-β-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cellsN6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal chemical modification of mRNAs involved in many pathological processes including various cancers. In this study, we investigated the m6A-dependent regulation of JUN and JUNB transcription factors (TFs) during transforming growth factor-beta–induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of A549 and LC2/ad lung cancer cell lines, as the function and regulation of these TFs within this process remains to be clarified. We found that JUN and JUNB played an important and nonredundant role in the EMT-inducing gene expression program by regulating different mesenchymal genes and that their expressions were controlled by methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) m6A methyltransferase.
Rapid genomic changes by mineralotropic hormones and kinase SIK inhibition drive coordinated renal Cyp27b1 and Cyp24a1 expression via CREB modulesVitamin D metabolism centers on kidney regulation of Cyp27b1 by mineralotropic hormones, including induction by parathyroid hormone (PTH), suppression by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), and reciprocal regulations for Cyp24a1. This coordinated genomic regulation results in production of endocrine 1,25(OH)2D3, which, together with PTH and FGF23, controls mineral homeostasis. However, how these events are coordinated is unclear. Here, using in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing in mouse kidney, we demonstrate that PTH activation rapidly induces increased recruitment of phosphorylated (p-133) CREB (pCREB) and its coactivators, CBP (CREB-binding protein) and CRTC2 (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2), to previously defined kidney-specific M1 and M21 enhancers near the Cyp27b1 gene.
A programmable system to methylate and demethylate N6-methyladenosine (m6A) on specific RNA transcripts in mammalian cellsRNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal mRNA modification and forms part of an epitranscriptomic system that modulates RNA function. m6A is reversibly catalyzed by specific enzymes, and those modifications can be recognized by RNA-binding proteins that in turn regulate biological processes. Although there are many reports demonstrating m6A participation in critical biological functions, this exploration has mainly been conducted through the global KO or knockdown of the writers, erasers, or readers of m6A.
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 is essential for oncogene product EWSR1-ATF1-mediated gene transcription in clear cell sarcomaTranscription dysregulation is common in sarcomas driven by oncogenic transcription factors. Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue (CCSST) is a rare sarcoma with poor prognosis presently with no therapy. It is characterized by a balanced t(12;22) (q13;q12) chromosomal translocation, resulting in a fusion of the Ewing’s sarcoma gene EWSR1 with activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) to give an oncogene EWSR1-ATF1. Unlike normal ATF1, whose transcription activity is dependent on phosphorylation, EWSR1-ATF1 is constitutively active to drive ATF1-dependent gene transcription to cause tumorigenesis.
Systematic mutagenesis of TFIIH subunit p52/Tfb2 identifies residues required for XPB/Ssl2 subunit function and genetic interactions with TFB6TFIIH is an evolutionarily conserved complex that plays central roles in both RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription and DNA repair. As an integral component of the pol II preinitiation complex, TFIIH regulates pol II enzyme activity in numerous ways. The TFIIH subunit XPB/Ssl2 is an ATP-dependent DNA translocase that stimulates promoter opening prior to transcription initiation. Crosslinking-mass spectrometry and cryo-EM results have shown a conserved interaction network involving XPB/Ssl2 and the C-terminal Hub region of the TFIIH p52/Tfb2 subunit, but the functional significance of specific residues is unclear.
The histone deacetylases Rpd3 and Hst1 antagonistically regulate de novo NAD+ metabolism in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiaeNAD+ is a cellular redox cofactor involved in many essential processes. The regulation of NAD+ metabolism and the signaling networks reciprocally interacting with NAD+-producing metabolic pathways are not yet fully understood. The NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) Hst1 has been shown to inhibit de novo NAD+ synthesis by repressing biosynthesis of nicotinic acid (BNA) gene expression. Here, we alternatively identify HDAC Rpd3 as a positive regulator of de novo NAD+ metabolism in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Transcriptional regulator Taf14 binds DNA and is required for the function of transcription factor TFIID in the absence of histone H2A.ZThe transcriptional regulator Taf14 is a component of multiple protein complexes involved in transcription initiation and chromatin remodeling in yeast cells. Although Taf14 is not required for cell viability, it becomes essential in conditions where the formation of the transcription preinitiation complex is hampered. The specific role of Taf14 in mediating transcription initiation and preinitiation complex formation is unclear. Here, we explored its role in the general transcription factor IID by mapping Taf14 genetic and proteomic interactions and found that it was needed for the function of the complex if Htz1, the yeast homolog of histone H2A.Z, was absent from chromatin.
Phosphatidic acid inhibits inositol synthesis by inducing nuclear translocation of kinase IP6K1 and repression of myo-inositol-3-P synthaseInositol is an essential metabolite that serves as a precursor for structural and signaling molecules. Although perturbation of inositol homeostasis has been implicated in numerous human disorders, surprisingly little is known about how inositol levels are regulated in mammalian cells. A recent study in mouse embryonic fibroblasts demonstrated that nuclear translocation of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) mediates repression of myo-inositol-3-P synthase (MIPS), the rate-limiting inositol biosynthetic enzyme.
AMPK-related protein kinase ARK5 regulates subcellular localization of RNA-binding protein hnRNP A1 during hypertonic stressThe heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein hnRNP A1 is a nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling RNA-binding protein that plays an important role in nucleic acid metabolism and gene expression regulation. The function of hnRNP A1 is determined in part by its specific location within the cell. Although some work has been done to elucidate the signaling pathways that regulate the cellular localization of hnRNP A1, the precise mechanism(s), including physiological and pathophysiological conditions that alter hnRNP A1 localization, are not known.
Phase-separation antagonists potently inhibit transcription and broadly increase nucleosome densityBiomolecular condensates are self-organized membraneless bodies involved in many critical cellular activities, including ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and gene transcription. Aliphatic alcohols are commonly used to study biomolecular condensates, but their effects on transcription are unclear. Here, we explore the impact of the aliphatic dialcohol, 1,6-hexanediol (1,6-HD), on Pol II transcription and nucleosome occupancy in budding yeast. As expected, 1,6-HD, a reagent effective in disrupting biomolecular condensates, strongly suppressed the thermal stress–induced transcription of Heat Shock Factor 1–regulated genes that have previously been shown to physically interact and coalesce into intranuclear condensates.
Alkaline pH has an unexpected effect on transcriptional pausing during synthesis of the Escherichia coli pH-responsive riboswitchRiboswitches are 5′-untranslated regions of mRNA that change their conformation in response to ligand binding, allowing post-transcriptional gene regulation. This ligand-based model of riboswitch function has been expanded with the discovery of a “pH-responsive element” (PRE) riboswitch in Escherichia coli. At neutral pH, the PRE folds into a translationally inactive structure with an occluded ribosome-binding sequence, whereas at alkaline pH, the PRE adopts a translationally active structure. This unique riboswitch does not rely on ligand binding in a traditional sense to modulate its alternative folding outcomes.
The secondary pocket of cryptochrome 2 is important for the regulation of its stability and localizationHuman clock-gene variations contribute to the phenotypic differences observed in various behavioral and physiological processes, such as diurnal preference, sleep, metabolism, mood regulation, addiction, and fertility. However, little is known about the possible effects of identified variations at the molecular level. In this study, we performed a functional characterization at the cellular level of rare cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) missense variations that were identified from the Ensembl database. Our structural studies revealed that three variations (p.Pro123Leu, p.Asp406His, and p.Ser410Ile) are located at the rim of the secondary pocket of CRY2.
Cyclin-dependent kinase-mediated phosphorylation and the negative regulatory domain of transcription factor B-Myb modulate its DNA bindingB-Myb is a highly conserved member of the vertebrate Myb family of transcription factors that plays a critical role in cell-cycle progression and proliferation. Myb proteins activate Myb-dependent promoters by interacting specifically with Myb-binding site (MBS) sequences using their DNA-binding domain (DBD). Transactivation of MBS promoters by B-Myb is repressed by its negative regulatory domain (NRD), and phosphorylation of the NRD by Cdk2-CyclinA relieves the repression to activate B-Myb–dependent promoters.
HMGN2 represses gene transcription via interaction with transcription factors Lef-1 and Pitx2 during amelogenesisThe chromatin-associated high mobility group protein N2 (HMGN2) cofactor regulates transcription factor activity through both chromatin and protein interactions. Hmgn2 expression is known to be developmentally regulated, but the post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate Hmgn2 expression and its precise roles in tooth development remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that HMGN2 inhibits the activity of multiple transcription factors as a general mechanism to regulate early development. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation, pull-down, and coimmunoprecipitation assays show that HMGN2 interacts with the transcription factor Lef-1 through its HMG-box domain as well as with other early development transcription factors, Dlx2, FoxJ1, and Pitx2.
RNA binding by ADAR3 inhibits adenosine-to-inosine editing and promotes expression of immune response protein MAVSMembers of the ADAR family of double-stranded RNA–binding proteins regulate one of the most abundant RNA modifications in humans, the deamination of adenosine to inosine. Several transcriptome-wide studies have been carried out to identify RNA targets of the active deaminases ADAR1 and ADAR2. However, our understanding of ADAR3, the brain-specific deaminase-deficient ADAR family member, is limited to a few transcripts. In this study, we identified over 3300 transcripts bound by ADAR3 and observed that binding of ADAR3 correlated with reduced editing of over 400 sites in the glioblastoma transcriptome.
Exploring high-resolution chromatin interaction changes and functional enhancers of myogenic marker genes during myogenic differentiationSkeletal muscle differentiation (myogenesis) is a complex and highly coordinated biological process regulated by a series of myogenic marker genes. Chromatin interactions between gene’s promoters and their enhancers have an important role in transcriptional control. However, the high-resolution chromatin interactions of myogenic genes and their functional enhancers during myogenesis remain largely unclear. Here, we used circularized chromosome conformation capture coupled with next generation sequencing (4C-seq) to investigate eight myogenic marker genes in C2C12 myoblasts (C2C12-MBs) and C2C12 myotubes (C2C12-MTs).
In vitro single molecule and bulk phase studies reveal the AP-1 transcription factor cFos binds to DNA without its partner cJunThe AP-1 transcription factor family crucially regulates progression of the cell cycle, as well as playing roles in proliferation, differentiation, and the stress response. The two best described AP-1 family members, cFos and cJun, are known to dimerize to form a functional AP-1 heterodimer that binds to a consensus response element sequence. Although cJun can also homodimerize and bind to DNA, the canonical view is that cFos cannot bind DNA without heterodimerizing with cJun. Here, we show that cFos can actually bind to DNA in the absence of cJun in vitro.
Genomic analysis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 action in mouse intestine reveals compartment and segment-specific gene regulatory effects1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD) regulates intestinal calcium absorption in the small intestine (SI) and also reduces risk of colonic inflammation and cancer. However, the intestine compartment-specific target genes of VD signaling are unknown. Here, we examined VD action across three functional compartments of the intestine using RNA-seq to measure VD-induced changes in gene expression and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation with next generation sequencing to measure vitamin D receptor (VDR) genomic binding.