Structural basis for transcription factor ZBTB7A recognition of DNA and effects of ZBTB7A somatic mutations that occur in human acute myeloid leukemiaZBTB7A belongs to a small family of transcription factors having three members in humans (7A, 7B, and 7C). They share a BTB/POZ protein interaction domain at the amino end and a zinc-finger DNA-binding domain at the carboxyl end. They control the transcription of a wide range of genes, having varied functions in hematopoiesis, oncogenesis, and metabolism (in particular glycolysis). ZBTB7A-binding profiles at gene promoters contain a consensus G(a/c)CCC motif, followed by a CCCC sequence in some instances.
Hierarchical assembly of the MLL1 core complex regulates H3K4 methylation and is dependent on temperature and component concentrationEnzymes of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) family of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferases are critical for cellular differentiation and development and are regulated by interaction with a conserved subcomplex consisting of WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L, and DPY30. While pairwise interactions between complex subunits have been determined, the mechanisms regulating holocomplex assembly are unknown. In this investigation, we systematically characterized the biophysical properties of a reconstituted human MLL1 core complex and found that the MLL1–WDR5 heterodimer interacts with the RbBP5–Ash2L–DPY30 subcomplex in a hierarchical assembly pathway that is highly dependent on concentration and temperature.
HSP70 mediates a crosstalk between the estrogen and the heat shock response pathwaysCells respond to multiple signals from the environment simultaneously, which often creates crosstalk between pathways affecting the capacity to adapt to the changing environment. Chaperones are an important component in the cellular integration of multiple responses to environmental signals, often implicated in negative feedback and inactivation mechanisms. These mechanisms include the stabilization of steroid hormone nuclear receptors in the cytoplasm in the absence of their ligand. Here, we show using immunofluorescence, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and nascent transcripts production that the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) chaperone plays a central role in a new crosstalk mechanism between the steroid and heat shock response pathways.
A complete methyl-lysine binding aromatic cage constructed by two domains of PHF2The N-terminal half of PHF2 harbors both a plant homeodomain (PHD) and a Jumonji domain. The PHD recognizes both histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 and methylated nonhistone proteins including vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1). The Jumonji domain erases the repressive dimethylation mark from histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) at select promoters. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of H3 (AR2TK4) and VRK1 (PR2VK4) bear an arginine at position 2 and lysine at position 4. Here, we show that the PHF2 N-terminal half binds to H3 and VRK1 peptides containing K4me3, with dissociation constants (KD values) of 160 nM and 42 nM, respectively, which are 4 × and 21 × lower (and higher affinities) than for the isolated PHD domain of PHF2.
Measurement of FGFR3 signaling at the cell membrane via total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to compare the activation of FGFR3 mutantsFibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) initiate signal transduction via the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by their tyrosine kinase activation known to determine cell growth, tissue differentiation, and apoptosis. Recently, many missense mutations have been reported for FGFR3, but we only know the functional effect for a handful of them. Some mutations result in aberrant FGFR3 signaling and are associated with various genetic disorders and oncogenic conditions. Here, we employed micropatterned surfaces to specifically enrich fluorophore-tagged FGFR3 (monomeric GFP [mGFP]-FGFR3) in certain areas of the plasma membrane of living cells.
Zinc-finger protein CXXC5 promotes breast carcinogenesis by regulating the TSC1/mTOR signaling pathwayCXXC5, a member of the CXXC family of zinc-finger proteins, is associated with numerous pathological processes. However, the pathophysiological function of CXXC5 has not been clearly established. Herein, we found that CXXC5 interacts with the CRL4B and NuRD complexes. Screening of transcriptional targets downstream of the CXXC5–CRL4B–NuRD complex by next-generation sequencing (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) revealed that the complex regulates the transcriptional repression process of a cohort of genes, including TSC1 (tuberous sclerosis complex subunit 1), which play important roles in cell growth and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway regulation, and whose abnormal regulation results in the activation of programmed cell death–ligand protein 1 (PD-L1).
Nuclear factor Nrf2 promotes glycosidase OGG1 expression by activating the AKT pathway to enhance leukemia cell resistance to cytarabineChemotherapy resistance is the dominant challenge in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Nuclear factor E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) exerts a vital function in drug resistance of many tumors. Nevertheless, the potential molecular mechanism of Nrf2 regulating the base excision repair pathway that mediates AML chemotherapy resistance remains unclear. Here, in clinical samples, we found that the high expression of Nrf2 and base excision repair pathway gene encoding 8-hydroxyguanine DNA glycosidase (OGG1) was associated with AML disease progression.
The AF-2 cofactor binding region is key for the selective SUMOylation of estrogen receptor alpha by antiestrogensAntiestrogens (AEs) are used to treat all stages of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen have tissue-specific partial agonist activity, while selective estrogen receptor downregulators such as fulvestrant (ICI182,780) display a more complete antiestrogenic profile. We have previously observed that fulvestrant-induced ERα SUMOylation contributes to transcriptional suppression, but whether this effect is seen with other AEs and is specific to ERα is unclear.
Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is important for oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) hemocyte adaptation to hypoxic conditionsCrustaceans have an open vascular system in which hemocytes freely circulate in hemolymph. Hemocytes are rich in hemocyanin, a specific oxygen-transport protein in crustaceans; therefore, understanding the response of hemocytes to hypoxia is crucial. Although hemocytes take up glucose during hypoxia, the molecular mechanism of glucose uptake in crustaceans remains unclear. Herein, we identified two highly conserved glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT2) in Macrobrachium nipponense (oriental river prawn) and analyzed their tissue-specific expression patterns.
Rate of transcription elongation and sequence-specific pausing by RNA polymerase I directly influence rRNA processingOne of the first steps in ribosome biogenesis is transcription of the ribosomal DNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Processing of the resultant rRNA begins cotranscriptionally, and perturbation of Pol I transcription elongation results in defective rRNA processing. Mechanistic insight regarding the link between transcription elongation and ribosome assembly is lacking because of limited in vivo methods to assay Pol I transcription. Here, we use native elongating transcript sequencing (NET-Seq) with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing a point mutation in Pol I, rpa190-F1205H, which results in impaired rRNA processing and ribosome assembly.
SOX9 and TCF transcription factors associate to mediate Wnt/β-catenin target gene activation in colorectal cancerActivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulates gene expression by promoting the formation of a β-catenin–T-cell factor (TCF) complex on target enhancers. In addition to TCFs, other transcription factors interact with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway at different levels to produce tissue-specific patterns of Wnt target gene expression. The transcription factor SOX9 potently represses many Wnt target genes by downregulating β-catenin protein levels. Here, we find using colony formation and cell growth assays that SOX9 surprisingly promotes the proliferation of Wnt-driven colorectal cancer (CRC) cells.
Biphasic transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of MYB by androgen signaling mediates its growth control in prostate cancerMYB, a proto-oncogene, is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and promotes its growth, aggressiveness, and resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy. Here, we examined the effect of androgen signaling on MYB expression and delineated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Paralleling a dichotomous effect on growth, low-dose androgen induced MYB expression at both transcript and protein levels, whereas it was suppressed in high-dose androgen-treated PCa cells. Interestingly, treatment with both low- and high-dose androgen transcriptionally upregulated MYB by increasing the binding of androgen receptor to the MYB promoter.
Identification of an E3 ligase that targets the catalytic subunit of RNA Polymerase I upon transcription stressRNA Polymerase I (Pol I) synthesizes rRNA, which is the first and rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis. Factors governing the stability of the polymerase complex are not known. Previous studies characterizing Pol I inhibitor BMH-21 revealed a transcriptional stress-dependent pathway for degradation of the largest subunit of Pol I, RPA194. To identify the E3 ligase(s) involved, we conducted a cell-based RNAi screen for ubiquitin pathway genes. We establish Skp–Cullin–F-box protein complex F-box protein FBXL14 as an E3 ligase for RPA194.
MITF is a novel transcriptional regulator of the calcium sensor STIM1: Significance in physiological melanogenesisStromal Interaction Molecule1 (STIM1) is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane-localized calcium (Ca2+) sensor that plays a critical role in the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) pathway. STIM1 regulates a variety of physiological processes and contributes to a plethora of pathophysiological conditions. Several disease states and enhanced biological phenomena are associated with increased STIM1 levels and activity. However, molecular mechanisms driving STIM1 expression remain largely unappreciated. We recently reported that STIM1 expression augments during pigmentation.
Methyltransferase SMYD3 impairs hypoxia tolerance by augmenting hypoxia signaling independent of its enzymatic activityHypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α, a main transcriptional regulator of the cellular response to hypoxia, also plays important roles in oxygen homeostasis of aerobic organisms, which is regulated by multiple mechanisms. However, the full cellular response to hypoxia has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that expression of SMYD3, a methyltransferase, augments hypoxia signaling independent of its enzymatic activity. We demonstrated SMYD3 binds to and stabilizes HIF1α via co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot assays, leading to the enhancement of HIF1α transcriptional activity under hypoxia conditions.
m6A RNA methylation regulates the transcription factors JUN and JUNB in TGF-β-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cellsN6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common internal chemical modification of mRNAs involved in many pathological processes including various cancers. In this study, we investigated the m6A-dependent regulation of JUN and JUNB transcription factors (TFs) during transforming growth factor-beta–induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of A549 and LC2/ad lung cancer cell lines, as the function and regulation of these TFs within this process remains to be clarified. We found that JUN and JUNB played an important and nonredundant role in the EMT-inducing gene expression program by regulating different mesenchymal genes and that their expressions were controlled by methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) m6A methyltransferase.
Rapid genomic changes by mineralotropic hormones and kinase SIK inhibition drive coordinated renal Cyp27b1 and Cyp24a1 expression via CREB modulesVitamin D metabolism centers on kidney regulation of Cyp27b1 by mineralotropic hormones, including induction by parathyroid hormone (PTH), suppression by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), and reciprocal regulations for Cyp24a1. This coordinated genomic regulation results in production of endocrine 1,25(OH)2D3, which, together with PTH and FGF23, controls mineral homeostasis. However, how these events are coordinated is unclear. Here, using in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing in mouse kidney, we demonstrate that PTH activation rapidly induces increased recruitment of phosphorylated (p-133) CREB (pCREB) and its coactivators, CBP (CREB-binding protein) and CRTC2 (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2), to previously defined kidney-specific M1 and M21 enhancers near the Cyp27b1 gene.
A programmable system to methylate and demethylate N6-methyladenosine (m6A) on specific RNA transcripts in mammalian cellsRNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal mRNA modification and forms part of an epitranscriptomic system that modulates RNA function. m6A is reversibly catalyzed by specific enzymes, and those modifications can be recognized by RNA-binding proteins that in turn regulate biological processes. Although there are many reports demonstrating m6A participation in critical biological functions, this exploration has mainly been conducted through the global KO or knockdown of the writers, erasers, or readers of m6A.
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 is essential for oncogene product EWSR1-ATF1-mediated gene transcription in clear cell sarcomaTranscription dysregulation is common in sarcomas driven by oncogenic transcription factors. Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue (CCSST) is a rare sarcoma with poor prognosis presently with no therapy. It is characterized by a balanced t(12;22) (q13;q12) chromosomal translocation, resulting in a fusion of the Ewing’s sarcoma gene EWSR1 with activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) to give an oncogene EWSR1-ATF1. Unlike normal ATF1, whose transcription activity is dependent on phosphorylation, EWSR1-ATF1 is constitutively active to drive ATF1-dependent gene transcription to cause tumorigenesis.
Systematic mutagenesis of TFIIH subunit p52/Tfb2 identifies residues required for XPB/Ssl2 subunit function and genetic interactions with TFB6TFIIH is an evolutionarily conserved complex that plays central roles in both RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription and DNA repair. As an integral component of the pol II preinitiation complex, TFIIH regulates pol II enzyme activity in numerous ways. The TFIIH subunit XPB/Ssl2 is an ATP-dependent DNA translocase that stimulates promoter opening prior to transcription initiation. Crosslinking-mass spectrometry and cryo-EM results have shown a conserved interaction network involving XPB/Ssl2 and the C-terminal Hub region of the TFIIH p52/Tfb2 subunit, but the functional significance of specific residues is unclear.
The histone deacetylases Rpd3 and Hst1 antagonistically regulate de novo NAD+ metabolism in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiaeNAD+ is a cellular redox cofactor involved in many essential processes. The regulation of NAD+ metabolism and the signaling networks reciprocally interacting with NAD+-producing metabolic pathways are not yet fully understood. The NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) Hst1 has been shown to inhibit de novo NAD+ synthesis by repressing biosynthesis of nicotinic acid (BNA) gene expression. Here, we alternatively identify HDAC Rpd3 as a positive regulator of de novo NAD+ metabolism in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Transcriptional regulator Taf14 binds DNA and is required for the function of transcription factor TFIID in the absence of histone H2A.ZThe transcriptional regulator Taf14 is a component of multiple protein complexes involved in transcription initiation and chromatin remodeling in yeast cells. Although Taf14 is not required for cell viability, it becomes essential in conditions where the formation of the transcription preinitiation complex is hampered. The specific role of Taf14 in mediating transcription initiation and preinitiation complex formation is unclear. Here, we explored its role in the general transcription factor IID by mapping Taf14 genetic and proteomic interactions and found that it was needed for the function of the complex if Htz1, the yeast homolog of histone H2A.Z, was absent from chromatin.
Phosphatidic acid inhibits inositol synthesis by inducing nuclear translocation of kinase IP6K1 and repression of myo-inositol-3-P synthaseInositol is an essential metabolite that serves as a precursor for structural and signaling molecules. Although perturbation of inositol homeostasis has been implicated in numerous human disorders, surprisingly little is known about how inositol levels are regulated in mammalian cells. A recent study in mouse embryonic fibroblasts demonstrated that nuclear translocation of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) mediates repression of myo-inositol-3-P synthase (MIPS), the rate-limiting inositol biosynthetic enzyme.
AMPK-related protein kinase ARK5 regulates subcellular localization of RNA-binding protein hnRNP A1 during hypertonic stressThe heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein hnRNP A1 is a nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling RNA-binding protein that plays an important role in nucleic acid metabolism and gene expression regulation. The function of hnRNP A1 is determined in part by its specific location within the cell. Although some work has been done to elucidate the signaling pathways that regulate the cellular localization of hnRNP A1, the precise mechanism(s), including physiological and pathophysiological conditions that alter hnRNP A1 localization, are not known.
Phase-separation antagonists potently inhibit transcription and broadly increase nucleosome densityBiomolecular condensates are self-organized membraneless bodies involved in many critical cellular activities, including ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis, and gene transcription. Aliphatic alcohols are commonly used to study biomolecular condensates, but their effects on transcription are unclear. Here, we explore the impact of the aliphatic dialcohol, 1,6-hexanediol (1,6-HD), on Pol II transcription and nucleosome occupancy in budding yeast. As expected, 1,6-HD, a reagent effective in disrupting biomolecular condensates, strongly suppressed the thermal stress–induced transcription of Heat Shock Factor 1–regulated genes that have previously been shown to physically interact and coalesce into intranuclear condensates.