- In up to 15% of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), a recurring chromosomal translocation, termed t(8;21), generates the AML1–eight–twenty-one (ETO) leukemia fusion protein, which contains the DNA-binding domain of Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) and almost all of ETO. RUNX1 and the AML1–ETO fusion protein are coexpressed in t(8;21) AML cells and antagonize each other’s gene-regulatory functions. AML1–ETO represses transcription of RUNX1 target genes by competitively displacing RUNX1 and recruiting corepressors such as histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3).
- Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is caused by the fusion of the BCR activator of RhoGEF and GTPase activating protein (BCR) and ABL proto-oncogene, the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (ABL) genes. Although the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) imatinib (IM) and nilotinib (NI) have remarkable efficacy in managing CML, the malignancies in some patients become TKI-resistant. Here, we isolated bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from several CML patients by Ficoll-Hypaque density-gradient centrifugation for coculture with K562 and BV173 cells with or without TKIs.
- Multidrug resistance is highly conserved in mammalian, fungal, and bacterial cells, is characterized by resistance to several unrelated xenobiotics, and poses significant challenges to managing infections and many cancers. Eukaryotes use a highly conserved set of drug efflux transporters that confer pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR). To interrogate the regulation of this critical process, here we developed a small molecule–responsive biosensor that couples transcriptional induction of PDR genes to growth rate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.