- Vitamin D metabolism centers on kidney regulation of Cyp27b1 by mineralotropic hormones, including induction by parathyroid hormone (PTH), suppression by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), and reciprocal regulations for Cyp24a1. This coordinated genomic regulation results in production of endocrine 1,25(OH)2D3, which, together with PTH and FGF23, controls mineral homeostasis. However, how these events are coordinated is unclear. Here, using in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing in mouse kidney, we demonstrate that PTH activation rapidly induces increased recruitment of phosphorylated (p-133) CREB (pCREB) and its coactivators, CBP (CREB-binding protein) and CRTC2 (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2), to previously defined kidney-specific M1 and M21 enhancers near the Cyp27b1 gene.
- Cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1 (CYP27B1) and CYP24A1 function to maintain physiological levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in the kidney. Renal Cyp27b1 and Cyp24a1 expression levels are transcriptionally regulated in a highly reciprocal manner by parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and 1,25(OH)2D3. In contrast, Cyp24a1 regulation in nonrenal target cells (NRTCs) is limited to induction by 1,25(OH)2D3. Herein, we used ChIP-Seq analyses of mouse tissues to identify regulatory regions within the Cyp24a1 gene locus.
- Vitamin D3 is terminally bioactivated in the kidney to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) via cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1 (CYP27B1), whose gene is regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and 1,25(OH)2D3. Our recent genomic studies in the mouse have revealed a complex kidney-specific enhancer module within the introns of adjacent methyltransferase-like 1 (Mettl1) and Mettl21b that mediate basal and PTH-induced expression of Cyp27b1 and FGF23- and 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated repression.
- The vitamin D endocrine system regulates mineral homeostasis through its activities in the intestine, kidney, and bone. Terminal activation of vitamin D3 to its hormonal form, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), occurs in the kidney via the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP27B1. Despite its importance in vitamin D metabolism, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the gene for this enzyme, Cyp27b1, are unknown. Here, we identified a kidney-specific control module governed by a renal cell-specific chromatin structure located distal to Cyp27b1 that mediates unique basal and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-, and 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated regulation of Cyp27b1 expression.
- Terminal differentiation of multipotent stem cells is achieved through a coordinated cascade of activated transcription factors and epigenetic modifications that drive gene transcription responsible for unique cell fate. Within the mesenchymal lineage, factors such as RUNX2 and PPARγ are indispensable for osteogenesis and adipogenesis, respectively. We therefore investigated genomic binding of transcription factors and accompanying epigenetic modifications that occur during osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).
- Background: Expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is regulated by hormones in a tissue-specific manner.Results: Enhancers potentially involved in the regulation of VDR expression were characterized in mouse tissues in vivo.Conclusion: Regulation of VDR expression is mediated by tissue-specific enhancers.Significance: Defining potential regulatory regions allows us to predict VDR expression in target tissues.
- Background Vitamin D3 regulates intestinal calcium absorption to maintain mineral homeostasis. Results Genome-wide analyses reveal vitamin D3 target genes and their regulatory components in intestine. Conclusion A gene network involved in vitamin D3-mediated calcium uptake in the intestine is defined. Significance The network of genes provides a basis for understanding molecular mechanisms of vitamin D3-mediated active calcium transport in the intestine.
- Background: Mmp13 is vital to bone homeostasis and controlled by a plethora of stimuli.Results: Mmp13 is modulated by distinct distal enhancers for basal (−30 kb) and vitamin D regulation (−10 kb).Conclusion: Enhancer deletions lead to altered transcription factor occupancy and expression for Mmp13.Significance: Specific CRISPR deletions reveal the repressive secondary effect of VDR, coordinated multi-enhancer gene control, and distal basal regulation of Mmp13.