Genomics and Proteomics
Expanded in vivo substrate profile of the yeast N-terminal acetyltransferase NatCN-terminal acetylation is a conserved protein modification among eukaryotes. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model system for studying this modification. The bulk of protein N-terminal acetylation in S. cerevisiae is catalyzed by the N-terminal acetyltransferases NatA, NatB, and NatC. Thus far, proteome-wide identification of the in vivo protein substrates of yeast NatA and NatB has been performed by N-terminomics. Here, we used S. cerevisiae deleted for the NatC catalytic subunit Naa30 and identified 57 yeast NatC substrates by N-terminal combined fractional diagonal chromatography analysis.
Genome-wide metabolite quantitative trait loci analysis (mQTL) in red blood cells from volunteer blood donorsThe red blood cell (RBC)-Omics study, part of the larger NHLBI-funded Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III), aims to understand the genetic contribution to blood donor RBC characteristics. Previous work identified donor demographic, behavioral, genetic, and metabolic underpinnings to blood donation, storage, and (to a lesser extent) transfusion outcomes, but none have yet linked the genetic and metabolic bodies of work. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis using RBC-Omics study participants with generated untargeted metabolomics data to identify metabolite quantitative trait loci in RBCs.
Src-mediated phosphorylation of the ribosome biogenesis factor hYVH1 affects its localization, promoting partitioning to the 60S ribosomal subunitYeast VH1-related phosphatase (YVH1) (also known as DUSP12) is a member of the atypical dual-specificity phosphatase subfamily. Although no direct substrate has been firmly established, human YVH1 (hYVH1) has been shown to protect cells from cellular stressors, regulate the cell cycle, disassemble stress granules, and act as a 60S ribosome biogenesis factor. Despite knowledge of hYVH1 function, further research is needed to uncover mechanisms of its regulation. In this study, we investigate cellular effects of a Src-mediated phosphorylation site at Tyr179 on hYVH1.
In vitro transdifferentiated signatures of goat preadipocytes into mammary epithelial cells revealed by DNA methylation and transcriptome profilingDuring mammary development, the transdifferentiation of mammary preadipocytes is one of the important sources for lactating mammary epithelial cells (MECs). However, there is limited knowledge about the mechanisms of dynamic regulation of transcriptome and genome-wide DNA methylation in the preadipocyte transdifferentiation process. Here, to gain more insight into these mechanisms, preadipocytes were isolated from adipose tissues from around the goat mammary gland (GM-preadipocytes). The GM-preadipocytes were cultured on Matrigel in conditioned media made from goat MECs to induce GM-preadipocyte-to-MEC transdifferentiation.
Integrated proteomics identifies PARP inhibitor-induced prosurvival signaling changes as potential vulnerabilities in ovarian cancerBRCA1/2-deficient ovarian carcinoma (OC) has been shown to be particularly sensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis). Furthermore, BRCA1/2 mutation status is currently used as a predictive biomarker for PARPi therapy. Despite providing a major clinical benefit to the majority of patients, a significant proportion of BRCA1/2-deficient OC tumors do not respond to PARPis for reasons that are incompletely understood. Using an integrated chemical, phospho- and ADP-ribosylation proteomics approach, we sought here to develop additional mechanism-based biomarker candidates for PARPi therapy in OC and identify new targets for combination therapy to overcome primary resistance.
microRNA-27b regulates hepatic lipase enzyme LIPC and reduces triglyceride degradation during hepatitis C virus infectionmiRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that negatively and specifically regulate protein expression, the cumulative effects of which can result in broad changes to cell systems and architecture. The miRNA miR-27b is known to regulate lipid regulatory pathways in the human liver and is also induced by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the functional targets of miR-27b are not well established. Herein, an activity-based protein profiling method using a serine hydrolase probe, coupled with stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry identified direct and indirect targets of miR-27b.
New insights into the type A glycan modification of Clostridioides difficile flagellar protein flagellin C by phosphoproteomics analysisThe type A glycan modification found in human pathogen Clostridioides difficile consists of a monosaccharide (GlcNAc) that is linked to an N-methylated threonine through a phosphodiester bond. This structure has previously been described on the flagellar protein flagellin C of several C. difficile strains and is important for bacterial motility. The study of post-translational modifications often relies on some type of enrichment strategy; however, a procedure for enrichment of this modification has not yet been demonstrated.
Phosphorylation regulates arginine-rich RNA-binding protein solubility and oligomerizationPosttranslational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate several critical steps in RNA metabolism, including spliceosome assembly, alternative splicing, and mRNA export. Notably, serine-/arginine- (SR)-rich RBPs are densely phosphorylated compared with the remainder of the proteome. Previously, we showed that dephosphorylation of the splicing factor SRSF2 regulated increased interactions with similar arginine-rich RBPs U1-70K and LUC7L3. However, the large-scale functional and structural impact of these modifications on RBPs remains unclear.
Quantitative proteomics identifies the universally conserved ATPase Ola1p as a positive regulator of heat shock response in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeThe universally conserved P-loop ATPase Ola1 is implicated in various cellular stress response pathways, as well as in cancer and tumor progression. However, Ola1p functions are divergent between species, and the involved mechanisms are only poorly understood. Here, we studied the role of Ola1p in the heat shock response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a combination of quantitative and pulse labeling-based proteomics approaches, in vitro studies, and cell-based assays. Our data show that when heat stress is applied to cells lacking Ola1p, the expression of stress-protective proteins is enhanced.
Proteomic identification and validation of novel interactions of the putative tumor suppressor PRELP with membrane proteins including IGFI-R and p75NTRProline and arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP) is a member of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans (SLRPs) family. Levels of PRELP mRNA are downregulated in many types of cancer, and PRELP has been reported to have suppressive effects on tumor cell growth, although the molecular mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. Given that other SLRPs regulate signaling pathways through interactions with various membrane proteins, we reasoned that PRELP likely interacts with membrane proteins to maintain cellular homeostasis.
A disorder-related variant (E420K) of a PP2A-regulatory subunit (PPP2R5D) causes constitutively active AKT-mTOR signaling and uncoordinated cell growthFunctional genomic approaches have facilitated the discovery of rare genetic disorders and improved efforts to decipher their underlying etiology. PPP2R5D-related disorder is an early childhood onset condition characterized by intellectual disability, hypotonia, autism-spectrum disorder, macrocephaly, and dysmorphic features. The disorder is caused by de novo single nucleotide changes in PPP2R5D, which generate heterozygous dominant missense variants. PPP2R5D is known to encode a B’-type (B’56δ) regulatory subunit of a PP2A-serine/threonine phosphatase.
The deubiquitinase TRABID stabilizes the K29/K48-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase HECTD1Ubiquitin is a versatile posttranslational modification, which is covalently attached to protein targets either as a single moiety or as a ubiquitin chain. In contrast to K48 and K63-linked chains, which have been extensively studied, the regulation and function of most atypical ubiquitin chains are only starting to emerge. The deubiquitinase TRABID/ZRANB1 is tuned for the recognition and cleavage of K29 and K33-linked chains. Yet, substrates of TRABID and the cellular functions of these atypical ubiquitin signals remain unclear.
Elongin A associates with actively transcribed genes and modulates enhancer RNA levels with limited impact on transcription elongation rate in vivoElongin A (EloA) is an essential transcription factor that stimulates the rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription elongation in vitro. However, its role as a transcription factor in vivo has remained underexplored. Here we show that in mouse embryonic stem cells, EloA localizes to both thousands of Pol II transcribed genes with preference for transcription start site and promoter regions and a large number of active enhancers across the genome. EloA deletion results in accumulation of transcripts from a subset of enhancers and their adjacent genes.
A cell competition–based small molecule screen identifies a novel compound that induces dual c-Myc depletion and p53 activationBreakpoint Cluster Region-Abelson kinase (BCR–Abl) is a driver oncogene that causes chronic myeloid leukemia and a subset of acute lymphoid leukemias. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide an effective treatment for these diseases, they generally do not kill leukemic stem cells (LSCs), the cancer-initiating cells that compete with normal hematopoietic stem cells for the bone marrow niche. New strategies to target cancers driven by BCR–Abl are therefore urgently needed. We performed a small molecule screen based on competition between isogenic untransformed cells and BCR–Abl-transformed cells and identified several compounds that selectively impair the fitness of BCR–Abl-transformed cells.
Mycobacteria excise DNA damage in 12- or 13-nucleotide-long oligomers by prokaryotic-type dual incisions and performs transcription-coupled repairIn nucleotide excision repair, bulky DNA lesions such as UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are removed from the genome by concerted dual incisions bracketing the lesion, followed by gap filling and ligation. So far, two dual-incision patterns have been discovered: the prokaryotic type, which removes the damage in 11–13-nucleotide-long oligomers, and the eukaryotic type, which removes the damage in 24–32-nucleotide-long oligomers. However, a recent study reported that the UvrC protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis removes damage in a manner analogous to yeast and humans in a 25-mer oligonucleotide arising from incisions at 15 nt from the 3´ end and 9 nt from the 5´ end flanking the damage.
Mass spectrometry characterization of light chain fragmentation sites in cardiac AL amyloidosis: insights into the timing of proteolysisAmyloid fibrils are polymeric structures originating from aggregation of misfolded proteins. In vivo, proteolysis may modulate amyloidogenesis and fibril stability. In light chain (AL) amyloidosis, fragmented light chains (LCs) are abundant components of amyloid deposits; however, site and timing of proteolysis are debated. Identification of the N and C termini of LC fragments is instrumental to understanding involved processes and enzymes. We investigated the N and C terminome of the LC proteoforms in fibrils extracted from the hearts of two AL cardiomyopathy patients, using a proteomic approach based on derivatization of N- and C-terminal residues, followed by mapping of fragmentation sites on the structures of native and fibrillar relevant LCs.
Global reprogramming of virulence and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a single nucleotide polymorphism in elongation factor, fusA1Clinical isolates of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) frequently contain mutations in the gene encoding an elongation factor, FusA1. Recent work has shown that fusA1 mutants often display elevated aminoglycoside resistance due to increased expression of the efflux pump, MexXY. However, we wondered whether these mutants might also be affected in other virulence-associated phenotypes. Here, we isolated a spontaneous gentamicin-resistant fusA1 mutant (FusA1P443L) in which mexXY expression was increased.
Mutant thermal proteome profiling for characterization of missense protein variants and their associated phenotypes within the proteomeTemperature-sensitive (TS) missense mutants have been foundational for characterization of essential gene function. However, an unbiased approach for analysis of biochemical and biophysical changes in TS missense mutants within the context of their functional proteomes is lacking. We applied MS-based thermal proteome profiling (TPP) to investigate the proteome-wide effects of missense mutations in an application that we refer to as mutant thermal proteome profiling (mTPP). This study characterized global impacts of temperature sensitivity–inducing missense mutations in two different subunits of the 26S proteasome.
Comparative interactomes of HSF1 in stress and disease reveal a role for CTCF in HSF1-mediated gene regulationHeat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) orchestrates cellular stress protection by activating or repressing gene transcription in response to protein misfolding, oncogenic cell proliferation, and other environmental stresses. HSF1 is tightly regulated via intramolecular repressive interactions, post-translational modifications, and protein-protein interactions. How these HSF1 regulatory protein interactions are altered in response to acute and chronic stress is largely unknown. To elucidate the profile of HSF1 protein interactions under normal growth and chronic and acutely stressful conditions, quantitative proteomics studies identified interacting proteins in the response to heat shock or in the presence of a poly-glutamine aggregation protein cell-based model of Huntington's disease.
A physical basis for quantitative ChIP-sequencingChIP followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is a key technique for mapping the distribution of histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and chromatin-associated factors across genomes. There is a perceived challenge to define a quantitative scale for ChIP-Seq data, and as such, several approaches making use of exogenous additives, or “spike-ins,” have recently been developed. Herein, we report on the development of a quantitative, physical model defining ChIP-Seq. The quantitative scale on which ChIP-Seq results should be compared emerges from the model.
Heterogeneous adaptation of cysteine reactivity to a covalent oncometaboliteAn important context in which metabolism influences tumorigenesis is the genetic cancer syndrome hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC), a disease in which mutation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) causes hyperaccumulation of fumarate. This electrophilic oncometabolite can alter gene activity at the level of transcription, via reversible inhibition of epigenetic dioxygenases, as well as posttranslationally, via covalent modification of cysteine residues.
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) structural and evolutionary dynamicome: Insights into functional evolution and human genomicsThe pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has challenged the speed at which laboratories can discover the viral composition and study health outcomes. The small ∼30-kb ssRNA genome of coronaviruses makes them adept at cross-species spread while enabling a robust understanding of all of the proteins the viral genome encodes. We have employed protein modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, evolutionary mapping, and 3D printing to gain a full proteome- and dynamicome-level understanding of SARS-CoV-2.
Effects of intron conversion in the human CYP11B2 gene on its transcription and blood pressure regulation in transgenic miceThe human cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily B member 2 (hCYP11B2) gene encodes aldosterone synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of aldosterone. In some humans, hCYP11B2 undergoes a unique intron conversion whose function is largely unclear. The intron conversion is formed by a replacement of the segment of DNA within intron 2 of hCYP11B2 with the corresponding region of the hCYP11B1 gene. We show here that the intron conversion is located in an open chromatin form and binds more strongly to the transcriptional regulators histone acetyltransferase P300 (p300), NFκB, and CCAAT enhancer–binding protein α (CEBPα).
The final assembly of trehalose polyphleates takes place within the outer layer of the mycobacterial cell envelopeTrehalose polyphleates (TPP) are high-molecular-weight, surface-exposed glycolipids present in a broad range of nontuberculous mycobacteria. These compounds consist of a trehalose core bearing polyunsaturated fatty acyl substituents (called phleic acids) and a straight-chain fatty acid residue and share a common basic structure with trehalose-based glycolipids produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TPP production starts in the cytosol with the formation of a diacyltrehalose intermediate. An acyltransferase, called PE, subsequently catalyzes the transfer of phleic acids onto diacyltrehalose to form TPP, and an MmpL transporter promotes the export of TPP or its precursor across the plasma membrane.
The magnesium transporter NIPAL1 is a pancreatic islet–expressed protein that conditionally impacts insulin secretionType 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance. Among individuals with type 2 diabetes, ∼30% exhibit hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia has been linked to insulin resistance through reduced tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor; however, its impact on pancreatic β-cell function is unknown. In this study, through analysis of several single-cell RNA-sequencing data sets in tandem with quantitative PCR validation in both murine and human islets, we identified NIPAL1 (NIPA-like domain containing 1), encoding a magnesium influx transporter, as an islet-enriched gene.