Genomics and Proteomics
Mycobacteria excise DNA damage in 12- or 13-nucleotide-long oligomers by prokaryotic-type dual incisions and performs transcription-coupled repairIn nucleotide excision repair, bulky DNA lesions such as UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are removed from the genome by concerted dual incisions bracketing the lesion, followed by gap filling and ligation. So far, two dual-incision patterns have been discovered: the prokaryotic type, which removes the damage in 11–13-nucleotide-long oligomers, and the eukaryotic type, which removes the damage in 24–32-nucleotide-long oligomers. However, a recent study reported that the UvrC protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis removes damage in a manner analogous to yeast and humans in a 25-mer oligonucleotide arising from incisions at 15 nt from the 3´ end and 9 nt from the 5´ end flanking the damage.
Genome-wide single-nucleotide resolution of oxaliplatin–DNA adduct repair in drug-sensitive and -resistant colorectal cancer cell linesPlatinum-based chemotherapies, including oxaliplatin, are a mainstay in the management of solid tumors and induce cell death by forming intrastrand dinucleotide DNA adducts. Despite their common use, they are highly toxic, and approximately half of cancer patients have tumors that are either intrinsically resistant or develop resistance. Previous studies suggest that this resistance is mediated by variations in DNA repair levels or net drug influx. Here, we aimed to better define the roles of nucleotide excision repair and DNA damage in platinum chemotherapy resistance by profiling DNA damage and repair efficiency in seven oxaliplatin-sensitive and three oxaliplatin-resistant colorectal cancer cell lines.
Drosophila, which lacks canonical transcription-coupled repair proteins, performs transcription-coupled repairPrevious work with the classic T4 endonuclease V digestion of DNA from irradiated Drosophila cells followed by Southern hybridization led to the conclusion that Drosophila lacks transcription-coupled repair (TCR). This conclusion was reinforced by the Drosophila Genome Project, which revealed that Drosophila lacks Cockayne syndrome WD repeat protein (CSA), CSB, or UV-stimulated scaffold protein A (UVSSA) homologs, whose orthologs are present in eukaryotes ranging from Arabidopsis to humans that carry out TCR.