Genomics and Proteomics
Fibril treatment changes protein interactions of tau and α-synuclein in human neuronsIn several neurodegenerative disorders, the neuronal proteins tau and α-synuclein adopt aggregation-prone conformations capable of replicating within and between cells. To better understand how these conformational changes drive neuropathology, we compared the interactomes of tau and α-synuclein in the presence or the absence of recombinant fibril seeds. Human embryonic stem cells with an inducible neurogenin-2 transgene were differentiated into glutamatergic neurons expressing (1) WT 0N4R tau, (2) mutant (P301L) 0N4R tau, (3) WT α-synuclein, or (4) mutant (A53T) α-synuclein, each genetically fused to a promiscuous biotin ligase (BioID2).
Src-mediated phosphorylation of the ribosome biogenesis factor hYVH1 affects its localization, promoting partitioning to the 60S ribosomal subunitYeast VH1-related phosphatase (YVH1) (also known as DUSP12) is a member of the atypical dual-specificity phosphatase subfamily. Although no direct substrate has been firmly established, human YVH1 (hYVH1) has been shown to protect cells from cellular stressors, regulate the cell cycle, disassemble stress granules, and act as a 60S ribosome biogenesis factor. Despite knowledge of hYVH1 function, further research is needed to uncover mechanisms of its regulation. In this study, we investigate cellular effects of a Src-mediated phosphorylation site at Tyr179 on hYVH1.
Integrated proteomics identifies PARP inhibitor-induced prosurvival signaling changes as potential vulnerabilities in ovarian cancerBRCA1/2-deficient ovarian carcinoma (OC) has been shown to be particularly sensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis). Furthermore, BRCA1/2 mutation status is currently used as a predictive biomarker for PARPi therapy. Despite providing a major clinical benefit to the majority of patients, a significant proportion of BRCA1/2-deficient OC tumors do not respond to PARPis for reasons that are incompletely understood. Using an integrated chemical, phospho- and ADP-ribosylation proteomics approach, we sought here to develop additional mechanism-based biomarker candidates for PARPi therapy in OC and identify new targets for combination therapy to overcome primary resistance.
microRNA-27b regulates hepatic lipase enzyme LIPC and reduces triglyceride degradation during hepatitis C virus infectionmiRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that negatively and specifically regulate protein expression, the cumulative effects of which can result in broad changes to cell systems and architecture. The miRNA miR-27b is known to regulate lipid regulatory pathways in the human liver and is also induced by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the functional targets of miR-27b are not well established. Herein, an activity-based protein profiling method using a serine hydrolase probe, coupled with stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry identified direct and indirect targets of miR-27b.
Quantitative proteomics identifies the universally conserved ATPase Ola1p as a positive regulator of heat shock response in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeThe universally conserved P-loop ATPase Ola1 is implicated in various cellular stress response pathways, as well as in cancer and tumor progression. However, Ola1p functions are divergent between species, and the involved mechanisms are only poorly understood. Here, we studied the role of Ola1p in the heat shock response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a combination of quantitative and pulse labeling-based proteomics approaches, in vitro studies, and cell-based assays. Our data show that when heat stress is applied to cells lacking Ola1p, the expression of stress-protective proteins is enhanced.
Protein O-fucosyltransferase 2–mediated O-glycosylation of the adhesin MIC2 is dispensable for Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite infectionToxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasite that causes congenital birth defects, disease in immunocompromised individuals, and blindness. Protein glycosylation plays an important role in the infectivity and evasion of immune responses of many eukaryotic parasites and is also of great relevance to vaccine design. Here we demonstrate that micronemal protein 2 (MIC2), a motility-associated adhesin of T. gondii, has highly glycosylated thrombospondin repeat (TSR) domains.
The proteasome-interacting Ecm29 protein disassembles the 26S proteasome in response to oxidative stressOxidative stress has been implicated in multiple human neurological and other disorders. Proteasomes are multi-subunit proteases critical for the removal of oxidatively damaged proteins. To understand stress-associated human pathologies, it is important to uncover the molecular events underlying the regulation of proteasomes upon oxidative stress. To this end, we investigated H2O2 stress–induced molecular changes of the human 26S proteasome and determined that stress-induced 26S proteasome disassembly is conserved from yeast to human.
The Atypical Dual Specificity Phosphatase hYVH1 Associates with Multiple Ribonucleoprotein ParticlesHuman YVH1 (hYVH1), also known as dual specificity phosphatase 12 (DUSP12), is a poorly characterized atypical dual specificity phosphatase widely conserved throughout evolution. Recent findings have demonstrated that hYVH1 expression affects cellular DNA content and is a novel cell survival phosphatase preventing both thermal and oxidative stress-induced cell death, whereas studies in yeast have established YVH1 as a novel 60S ribosome biogenesis factor. In this study, we have isolated novel hYVH1-associating proteins from human U2OS osteosarcoma cells using affinity chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry employing ion mobility separation.