Genomics and Proteomics
- Yeast VH1-related phosphatase (YVH1) (also known as DUSP12) is a member of the atypical dual-specificity phosphatase subfamily. Although no direct substrate has been firmly established, human YVH1 (hYVH1) has been shown to protect cells from cellular stressors, regulate the cell cycle, disassemble stress granules, and act as a 60S ribosome biogenesis factor. Despite knowledge of hYVH1 function, further research is needed to uncover mechanisms of its regulation. In this study, we investigate cellular effects of a Src-mediated phosphorylation site at Tyr179 on hYVH1.
- BRCA1/2-deficient ovarian carcinoma (OC) has been shown to be particularly sensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis). Furthermore, BRCA1/2 mutation status is currently used as a predictive biomarker for PARPi therapy. Despite providing a major clinical benefit to the majority of patients, a significant proportion of BRCA1/2-deficient OC tumors do not respond to PARPis for reasons that are incompletely understood. Using an integrated chemical, phospho- and ADP-ribosylation proteomics approach, we sought here to develop additional mechanism-based biomarker candidates for PARPi therapy in OC and identify new targets for combination therapy to overcome primary resistance.
- miRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that negatively and specifically regulate protein expression, the cumulative effects of which can result in broad changes to cell systems and architecture. The miRNA miR-27b is known to regulate lipid regulatory pathways in the human liver and is also induced by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the functional targets of miR-27b are not well established. Herein, an activity-based protein profiling method using a serine hydrolase probe, coupled with stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry identified direct and indirect targets of miR-27b.
- The universally conserved P-loop ATPase Ola1 is implicated in various cellular stress response pathways, as well as in cancer and tumor progression. However, Ola1p functions are divergent between species, and the involved mechanisms are only poorly understood. Here, we studied the role of Ola1p in the heat shock response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a combination of quantitative and pulse labeling-based proteomics approaches, in vitro studies, and cell-based assays. Our data show that when heat stress is applied to cells lacking Ola1p, the expression of stress-protective proteins is enhanced.
- Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasite that causes congenital birth defects, disease in immunocompromised individuals, and blindness. Protein glycosylation plays an important role in the infectivity and evasion of immune responses of many eukaryotic parasites and is also of great relevance to vaccine design. Here we demonstrate that micronemal protein 2 (MIC2), a motility-associated adhesin of T. gondii, has highly glycosylated thrombospondin repeat (TSR) domains.
- Oxidative stress has been implicated in multiple human neurological and other disorders. Proteasomes are multi-subunit proteases critical for the removal of oxidatively damaged proteins. To understand stress-associated human pathologies, it is important to uncover the molecular events underlying the regulation of proteasomes upon oxidative stress. To this end, we investigated H2O2 stress–induced molecular changes of the human 26S proteasome and determined that stress-induced 26S proteasome disassembly is conserved from yeast to human.
- Human YVH1 (hYVH1), also known as dual specificity phosphatase 12 (DUSP12), is a poorly characterized atypical dual specificity phosphatase widely conserved throughout evolution. Recent findings have demonstrated that hYVH1 expression affects cellular DNA content and is a novel cell survival phosphatase preventing both thermal and oxidative stress-induced cell death, whereas studies in yeast have established YVH1 as a novel 60S ribosome biogenesis factor. In this study, we have isolated novel hYVH1-associating proteins from human U2OS osteosarcoma cells using affinity chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry employing ion mobility separation.