Genomics and Proteomics
- Ubiquitin is a versatile posttranslational modification, which is covalently attached to protein targets either as a single moiety or as a ubiquitin chain. In contrast to K48 and K63-linked chains, which have been extensively studied, the regulation and function of most atypical ubiquitin chains are only starting to emerge. The deubiquitinase TRABID/ZRANB1 is tuned for the recognition and cleavage of K29 and K33-linked chains. Yet, substrates of TRABID and the cellular functions of these atypical ubiquitin signals remain unclear.
- Inhibitory GABAergic transmission is required for proper circuit function in the nervous system. However, our understanding of molecular mechanisms that preferentially influence GABAergic transmission, particularly presynaptic mechanisms, remains limited. We previously reported that the ubiquitin ligase EEL-1 preferentially regulates GABAergic presynaptic transmission. To further explore how EEL-1 functions, here we performed affinity purification proteomics using Caenorhabditis elegans and identified the O-GlcNAc transferase OGT-1 as an EEL-1 binding protein.
- Ataxin-3 is a deubiquitinating enzyme and the affected protein in the neurodegenerative disorder Machado–Joseph disease (MJD). The ATXN3 gene is alternatively spliced, resulting in protein isoforms that differ in the number of ubiquitin-interacting motifs. Additionally, nonsynonymous SNPs in ATXN3 cause amino acid changes in ataxin-3, and one of these polymorphisms introduces a premature stop codon in one isoform. Here, we examined the effects of different ataxin-3 isoforms and of the premature stop codon on ataxin-3’s physiological function and on main disease mechanisms.
- KEAP1 is a substrate adaptor protein for a CUL3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase. Ubiquitylation and degradation of the antioxidant transcription factor NRF2 is considered the primary function of KEAP1; however, few other KEAP1 substrates have been identified. Because KEAP1 is altered in a number of human pathologies and has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target therein, we sought to better understand KEAP1 through systematic identification of its substrates. Toward this goal, we combined parallel affinity capture proteomics and candidate-based approaches.