Genomics and Proteomics
- Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a nuclear NAD+-dependent deacetylase of histone H3 that regulates genome stability and gene expression. However, nonhistone substrates and additional catalytic activities of SIRT6, including long-chain deacylation and mono-ADP-ribosylation of other proteins, have also been reported, but many of these noncanonical roles remain enigmatic. Genetic studies have revealed critical homeostatic cellular functions of SIRT6, underscoring the need to better understand which catalytic functions and molecular pathways are driving SIRT6-associated phenotypes.
- The Ser/Thr protein kinase MELK (maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase) has been considered an attractive therapeutic target for managing cancer since 2005. Studies using expression analysis have indicated that MELK expression is higher in numerous cancer cells and tissues than in their normal, nonneoplastic counterparts. Further, RNAi-mediated MELK depletion impairs proliferation of multiple cancers, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and these growth defects can be rescued with exogenous WT MELK, but not kinase-dead MELK complementation.
- The Maf proteins, including c-Maf, MafA, and MafB, are critical transcription factors in myelomagenesis. Previous studies demonstrated that Maf proteins are processed by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway, but the mechanisms remain elusive. This study applied MS to identify MafB ubiquitination-associated proteins and found that the ubiquitin-specific protease USP7 was present in the MafB interactome. Moreover, USP7 also interacted with c-Maf and MafA and blocked their polyubiquitination and degradation.
- Cancer tissues harbor thousands of mutations, and a given oncogene may be mutated at hundreds of sites, yet only a few of these mutations have been functionally tested. Here, we describe an unbiased platform for the functional characterization of thousands of variants of a single receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) gene in a single assay. Our in vitro screen for activating mutations (iSCREAM) platform enabled rapid analysis of mutations conferring gain-of-function RTK activity promoting clonal growth.
- Lysine acetylation is a widespread posttranslational modification affecting many biological pathways. Recent studies indicate that acetylated lysine residues mainly exhibit low acetylation occupancy, but challenges in sample preparation and analysis make it difficult to confidently assign these numbers, limiting understanding of their biological significance. Here, we tested three common sample preparation methods to determine their suitability for assessing acetylation stoichiometry in three human cell lines, identifying the acetylation occupancy in more than 1,300 proteins from each cell line.