Genomics and Proteomics
- Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are critical for processes such as transcription. The more notable among these are the nonacetyl histone lysine acylation modifications such as crotonylation, butyrylation, and succinylation. However, the biological relevance of these PTMs is not fully understood because their regulation is largely unknown. Here, we set out to investigate whether the main histone acetyltransferases in budding yeast, Gcn5 and Esa1, possess crotonyltransferase activity.
- Transcriptional activation by p53 provides powerful, organism-wide tumor suppression. We hypothesized that the local chromatin environment, including differential enhancer activities, contributes to various p53-dependent transcriptional activities in different cell types during stress-induced signaling. In this work, using ChIP-sequencing, immunoblotting, quantitative PCR, and computational analyses across various mammalian cell lines, we demonstrate that the p53-induced transcriptome varies by cell type, reflects cell type–specific activities, and is considerably broader than previously anticipated.
- Screening of cellular activity for inhibitors of histone lysine modifiers is most frequently performed indirectly by analyzing changes in the total levels of histone marks targeted by lysine methylases/demethylases. However, inhibition of histone lysine modifiers often leads to local rather than total changes in histone marks. Also, because histone modifications can be modulated by more than one cellular enzyme, it is not always clear whether changes in histone marks are a direct or indirect consequence of the inhibitor treatment applied.
- Although the functional role of chromatin marks at promoters in mediating cell-restricted gene expression has been well characterized, the role of intragenic chromatin marks is not well understood, especially in endothelial cell (EC) gene expression. Here, we characterized the histone H3 and H4 acetylation profiles of 19 genes with EC-enriched expression via locus-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by ultra-high–resolution (5 bp) tiling array analysis in ECs versus non-ECs throughout their genomic loci.
- Transcriptional activation of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, which remains repressed in adult somatic cells, is critical during tumorigenesis. Several transcription factors and the epigenetic state of the hTERT promoter are known to be important for tight control of hTERT in normal tissues, but the molecular mechanisms leading to hTERT reactivation in cancer are not well-understood. Surprisingly, here we found occupancy of the metastasis suppressor non-metastatic 2 (NME2) within the hTERT core promoter in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells and HCT116 colon cancer cells and NME2-mediated transcriptional repression of hTERT in these cells.
- Background: G9a-GLP lysine methyltransferases mono- and di-methylate histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2).Results: Widely interspaced zinc finger (WIZ) regulates H3K9me2 levels through a mechanism that involves retention of G9a on chromatin.Conclusion: The G9a-GLP-WIZ complex has unique functions when bound to chromatin that are independent of the H3K9me2 mark.Significance: Combining pharmacologic and genetic manipulations is essential to any translational hypotheses related to G9a function.