Genomics and Proteomics
- Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate several critical steps in RNA metabolism, including spliceosome assembly, alternative splicing, and mRNA export. Notably, serine-/arginine- (SR)-rich RBPs are densely phosphorylated compared with the remainder of the proteome. Previously, we showed that dephosphorylation of the splicing factor SRSF2 regulated increased interactions with similar arginine-rich RBPs U1-70K and LUC7L3. However, the large-scale functional and structural impact of these modifications on RBPs remains unclear.
- Voltage-gated Na+ (NaV) channels are key regulators of myocardial excitability, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent alterations in NaV1.5 channel inactivation are emerging as a critical determinant of arrhythmias in heart failure. However, the global native phosphorylation pattern of NaV1.5 subunits associated with these arrhythmogenic disorders and the associated channel regulatory defects remain unknown. Here, we undertook phosphoproteomic analyses to identify and quantify in situ the phosphorylation sites in the NaV1.5 proteins purified from adult WT and failing CaMKIIδc-overexpressing (CaMKIIδc-Tg) mouse ventricles.
- The abundance of integral membrane proteins in the plasma membrane is determined by a dynamic balance between exocytosis and endocytosis, which can often be regulated by physiological stimuli. Here, we describe a mechanism that accounts for the ability of the peptide hormone vasopressin to regulate water excretion via a phosphorylation-dependent modulation of the PDZ domain-ligand interaction involving the water channel protein aquaporin-2. We discovered that the PDZ domain-containing protein Sipa1l1 (signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 like 1) binds to the cytoplasmic PDZ-ligand motif of aquaporin-2 and accelerates its endocytosis in the absence of vasopressin.
- Using affinity purification MS approaches, we have identified a novel role for casein kinase II (CKII) in the modification of the polymerase associated factor complex (PAF-C). Our data indicate that the facilitates chromatin transcription complex (FACT) interacts with CKII and may facilitate PAF complex phosphorylation. Posttranslational modification analysis of affinity-isolated PAF-C shows extensive CKII phosphorylation of all five subunits of PAF-C, although CKII subunits were not detected as interacting partners.
- The non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein indispensable for the viral life cycle. Many prior papers have pinpointed several serine residues in the low complexity sequence I region of NS5A responsible for NS5A phosphorylation; however, the functions of specific phosphorylation sites remained obscure. Using phosphoproteomics, we identified three phosphorylation sites (serines 222, 235, and 238) in the NS5A low complexity sequence I region. Reporter virus and replicon assays using phosphorylation-ablated alanine mutants of these sites showed that Ser-235 dominated over Ser-222 and Ser-238 in HCV replication.
- Background: Surface proteins fine-tune insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells.Results: Kirrel2 is regulated by multiple post-translational modifications, and its expression influences basal insulin secretion.Conclusion: Kirrel2 expression is tightly regulated by phosphorylation and suppresses basal insulin secretion.Significance: Genetic and biochemical characterization of Kirrel2 in pancreatic β-cells reveals insight into regulation of protein stability and insulin secretion.