Genomics and Proteomics
- Elongin A (EloA) is an essential transcription factor that stimulates the rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription elongation in vitro. However, its role as a transcription factor in vivo has remained underexplored. Here we show that in mouse embryonic stem cells, EloA localizes to both thousands of Pol II transcribed genes with preference for transcription start site and promoter regions and a large number of active enhancers across the genome. EloA deletion results in accumulation of transcripts from a subset of enhancers and their adjacent genes.
- Transcriptional activation by p53 provides powerful, organism-wide tumor suppression. We hypothesized that the local chromatin environment, including differential enhancer activities, contributes to various p53-dependent transcriptional activities in different cell types during stress-induced signaling. In this work, using ChIP-sequencing, immunoblotting, quantitative PCR, and computational analyses across various mammalian cell lines, we demonstrate that the p53-induced transcriptome varies by cell type, reflects cell type–specific activities, and is considerably broader than previously anticipated.
- Aberrant androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcription is a hallmark of human prostate cancers. At the molecular level, ligand-mediated AR activation is coordinated through spatial and temporal protein-protein interactions involving AR-interacting proteins, which we designate the “AR-interactome.” Despite many years of research, the ligand-sensitive protein complexes involved in ligand-mediated AR activation in prostate tumor cells have not been clearly defined. Here, we describe the development, characterization, and utilization of a novel human LNCaP prostate tumor cell line, N-AR, which stably expresses wild-type AR tagged at its N terminus with the streptavidin-binding peptide epitope (streptavidin-binding peptide-tagged wild-type androgen receptor; SBP-AR).
- Using affinity purification MS approaches, we have identified a novel role for casein kinase II (CKII) in the modification of the polymerase associated factor complex (PAF-C). Our data indicate that the facilitates chromatin transcription complex (FACT) interacts with CKII and may facilitate PAF complex phosphorylation. Posttranslational modification analysis of affinity-isolated PAF-C shows extensive CKII phosphorylation of all five subunits of PAF-C, although CKII subunits were not detected as interacting partners.
- Recent work from others and us revealed interactions between the Sin3/HDAC complex, the H3K4me3 demethylase KDM5A, GATAD1, and EMSY. Here, we characterize the EMSY/KDM5A/SIN3B complex in detail by quantitative interaction proteomics and ChIP-sequencing. We identify a novel substoichiometric interactor of the complex, transcription factor ZNF131, which recruits EMSY to a large number of active, H3K4me3 marked promoters. Interestingly, using an EMSY knock-out line and subsequent rescue experiments, we show that EMSY is in most cases positively correlated with transcriptional activity of its target genes and stimulates cell proliferation.
- Background: The Jhd2 PHD finger is required for H3K4 demethylation, but how it contributes to chromatin binding is not known.Results: Mutating two H2A residues impacts chromatin association and H3K4 demethylation by Jhd2.Conclusion: The PHD finger-H2A interaction controls Jhd2 functions.Significance: Histone H2A is a novel recognition target for the PHD finger, and it contributes to the chromatin binding dynamics, enzymatic activities, and transcriptional regulatory functions of Jhd2.
- Background: G9a-GLP lysine methyltransferases mono- and di-methylate histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2).Results: Widely interspaced zinc finger (WIZ) regulates H3K9me2 levels through a mechanism that involves retention of G9a on chromatin.Conclusion: The G9a-GLP-WIZ complex has unique functions when bound to chromatin that are independent of the H3K9me2 mark.Significance: Combining pharmacologic and genetic manipulations is essential to any translational hypotheses related to G9a function.
- Spider venom is a complex mixture of bioactive peptides to subdue their prey. Early estimates suggested that over 400 venom peptides are produced per species. In order to investigate the mechanisms responsible for this impressive diversity, transcriptomics based on second generation high throughput sequencing was combined with peptidomic assays to characterize the venom of the tarantula Haplopelma hainanum. The genes expressed in the venom glands were identified, and the bioactivity of their protein products was analyzed using the patch clamp technique.