Genomics and Proteomics
- Clinical isolates of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) frequently contain mutations in the gene encoding an elongation factor, FusA1. Recent work has shown that fusA1 mutants often display elevated aminoglycoside resistance due to increased expression of the efflux pump, MexXY. However, we wondered whether these mutants might also be affected in other virulence-associated phenotypes. Here, we isolated a spontaneous gentamicin-resistant fusA1 mutant (FusA1P443L) in which mexXY expression was increased.
- Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance. Among individuals with type 2 diabetes, ∼30% exhibit hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia has been linked to insulin resistance through reduced tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor; however, its impact on pancreatic β-cell function is unknown. In this study, through analysis of several single-cell RNA-sequencing data sets in tandem with quantitative PCR validation in both murine and human islets, we identified NIPAL1 (NIPA-like domain containing 1), encoding a magnesium influx transporter, as an islet-enriched gene.
- Ribosome profiling (RIBO-Seq) has improved our understanding of bacterial translation, including finding many unannotated genes. However, protocols for RIBO-Seq and corresponding data analysis are not yet standardized. Here, we analyzed 48 RIBO-Seq samples from nine studies of Escherichia coli K12 grown in lysogeny broth medium and particularly focused on the size-selection step. We show that for conventional expression analysis, a size range between 22 and 30 nucleotides is sufficient to obtain protein-coding fragments, which has the advantage of removing many unwanted rRNA and tRNA reads.
- Fatty acid transport protein 2 (FATP2) is highly expressed in the liver, small intestine, and kidney, where it functions in both the transport of exogenous long-chain fatty acids and the activation of very-long-chain fatty acids. Here, using a murine model, we investigated the phenotypic impacts of deleting FATP2, followed by a transcriptomic analysis using unbiased RNA-Seq to identify concomitant changes in the liver transcriptome. WT and FATP2-null (Fatp2−/−) mice (5 weeks) were maintained on a standard chow diet for 6 weeks.
- Endothelial cells (ECs) lining the vasculature of vertebrates respond to low oxygen (hypoxia) by maintaining vascular homeostasis and initiating adaptive growth of new vasculature through angiogenesis. Previous studies have uncovered the molecular underpinnings of the hypoxic response in ECs; however, there is a need for comprehensive temporal analysis of the transcriptome during hypoxia. Here, we sought to investigate the early transcriptional programs of hypoxic ECs by using RNA-Seq of primary cultured human umbilical vein ECs exposed to progressively increasing severity and duration of hypoxia.
- The nuclear factor (erythroid 2)-like (NRF) transcription factors are a subset of cap'n'collar transcriptional regulators. They consist of three members, NRF1, NRF2, and NRF3, that regulate the expression of genes containing antioxidant-response elements (AREs) in their promoter regions. Although all NRF members regulate ARE-containing genes, each is associated with distinct roles. A comprehensive study of differential and overlapping DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of the NRFs has not yet been conducted.
- Cardiomyocytes acquire their primary specialized function (contraction) before exiting the cell cycle. In this regard, proliferation and differentiation must be precisely coordinated for proper cardiac morphogenesis. Here, we have investigated the complex transcriptional mechanisms employed by cardiomyocytes to coordinate antagonistic cell-cycle and differentiation gene programs through the molecular dissection of the core cardiac transcription factor, MEF2. Knockdown of individual MEF2 proteins, MEF2A, -C, and -D, in primary neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in radically distinct and opposite effects on cellular homeostasis and gene regulation.
- The capacity of the liver to regenerate is likely to be encoded as a plasticity of molecular networks within the liver. By applying a combination of comprehensive analyses of the epigenome, transcriptome, and proteome, we herein depict the molecular landscape of liver regeneration. We demonstrated that histone H3 Lys-4 was trimethylated at the promoter regions of many loci, among which only a fraction, including cell-cycle-related genes, were transcriptionally up-regulated. A cistrome analysis guided by the histone methylation patterns and the transcriptome identified FOXM1 as the key transcription factor promoting liver regeneration, which was confirmed in vitro using a hepatocarcinoma cell line.